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SAP Database Administration with Oracle

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SAP Database Administration with Oracle
Stechies

Contents


1 Introduction ........................................................ ..................... 15


1.1 Reasons for Owning This Book ............................................... 16
1.2 Tasks of the SAP Basis ............................................................ 18
1.3 Structure of This Book ............................................................ 19
1.4 Conventions and Other Information ......................................... 23
1.5 Acknowledgements ................................................................ 24

2 SAP Fundamentals ................................................................. 27


2.1 Overview of the SAP Software ............................................. 27
2.1.1 Standard Software versus Individual Software .................... 27
2.1.2 Integration ......................................................................... 28
2.1.3 Development of SAP R/3 .................................................. 28
2.1.4 SAP Terminology .............................................................. 32
2.2 Architecture and Scalability .................................................. 35
2.3 Application Server ............................................................... 37
2.3.1 Overview of the SAP Application Server Processes .......... 38
2.3.2 Memory Structures ........................................................... 39
2.3.3 Dispatcher ........................................................................ 40
2.3.4 Dialog Work Process ....................................................... 42
2.3.5 Batch Work Process (BTC) ............................................. 45
2.3.6 Update Process (UPD) .................................................... 47
2.3.7 Lock Management with the Enqueue Process (ENQ) ........ 48
2.3.8 Message Server Process .................................................. 49
2.3.9 Gateway Process ............................................................. 49
2.3.10 Variants of an Instance ................................................... 49
2.4 SAP Administration ............................................................ 50
2.4.1 Profile Files and System Startup ...................................... 50
2.4.2 Software Maintenance .................................................... 52
2.4.3 Database Administration ................................................. 53
2.4.4 Data Backup .................................................................. 54
2.4.5 Performance Optimization ............................................... 55
2.5 SAP and Software Development ....................................... 56
2.5.1 ABAP Framework ........................................................ 57
2.5.2 Java in the SAP Kernel .................................................. 60
2.5.3 Internet Transaction Server ............................................ 61
2.5.4 Remote Function Call .................................................... 62
2.6 Summary ......................................................................... 63

3 Oracle Fundamentals ........................................................... 65


3.1 Basics of Database Technology ........................................ 65
3.1.1 Motivation and History ................................................... 65
3.1.2 Relational Data Model and SQL ................................... 71
3.1.3 Short Overview of SQL ............................................... 75
3.1.4 Implementation Techniques for DBMS ......................... 79
3.2 Development of Oracle ................................................... 81
3.3 Tools for the Oracle Administrator .................................. 84
3.3.1 sqlplus ....................................................................... ..84
3.3.2 isqlplus ........................................................................ 86
3.3.3 Oracle Enterprise Manager ......................................... 87
3.4 Oracle Kernel ................................................................ 89
3.4.1 Oracle Processes ........................................................ 90
3.4.2 Oracle Main Memory Structures ................................ 93
3.4.3 Oracle File System ..................................................... 96
3.4.4 Oracle Tablespace Concept ........................................ 98
3.4.5 Other Important Files ................................................ 109
3.4.6 Interaction of Processes and Storage Structures........... 116
3.4.7 Accessing Oracle with Oracle Net .............................. 119
3.4.8 Query Optimization ................................................... 126
3.4.9 Data Backup and Recovery ....................................... 133
3.4.10 Users and Privileges ................................................. 140
3.4.11 Monitoring an Oracle Instance with the
Enterprise Manager ............................................................ 145
3.5 Summary ..................................................................... 147

4 SAP and Oracle ...............................................................149


4.1 Processes of SAP and Oracle Systems ......................... 150
4.1.1 System Startup .......................................................... 152
4.1.2 Relationships Between Processes .............................. 161
4.1.3 Communication Between SAP Instances and
Oracle Processes .............................................................. 163
4.1.4 Log and Trace Files ................................................. 165
4.1.5 System Stop ............................................................ 171
4.2 Requirements at the Operating System Level ............... 173
4.2.1 Users, Groups, and Environment Variables (UNIX) ..177
4.2.2 Oracle Client ............................................................180
4.2.3 SAP Kernel .............................................................185
4.3 Authentication Between SAP and Oracle .....................190
4.3.1 Database Users ........................................................190
4.3.2 Login Processes .......................................................192
4.3.3 Privileges in the Database .........................................197
4.3.4 Security Aspects ......................................................199
4.4 SAP Tablespaces ........................................................202
4.4.1 Tablespace Layout ...................................................202
4.4.2 Tablespace Types ....................................................207
4.4.3 Object Assignment and Object Parameters ...............209
4.4.4 Reorganizing Tables and Tablespaces .......................211
4.5 Administrating Oracle with the BR*Tools .....................216
4.5.1 Development and Content ........................................217
4.5.2 Environment, Options, and Log Files ........................ 219
4.5.3 BRTOOLS and BRGUI ...........................................224
4.5.4 BRCONNECT ........................................................227
4.5.5 BRSPACE ..............................................................230
4.5.6 Parameter Maintenance for Oracle ...........................235
4.6 Summary ....................................................................240

5 Planning the System Landscape ......................................243


5.1 From Product to Solution Landscape ...........................243
5.2 Overview of Planning Criteria ..................................... 245
5.2.1 Construction Infrastructure ...................................... 246
5.2.2 Server Technology and Platforms ............................ 250
5.2.3 Storage and SAN Infrastructure .............................. 254
5.2.4 Backup .................................................................. 257
5.2.5 Frontend ................................................................ 259
5.3 High Availability ..........................................................263
5.4 IT and System Security ............................................... 267
5.5 Extending an Existing Landscape ................................ 274
5.6 Summary ................................................................... 276

6 SAP Change and Transport Management ......................277


6.1 Standard Software and Changes to the Standard ........278
6.2 Basic Principles of Software Logistics .........................280
6.2.1 Data in the SAP System ..........................................280
6.2.2 System Landscape ..................................................284
6.2.3 Change and Transport System (CTS) ..................... 288
6.2.4 Recording Changes ................................................ 291
6.2.5 Change Requests ................................................... 292
6.2.6 Transport Management System .............................. 296
6.2.7 Transport Routes and Transport Layers ..................302
6.3 Change Management for Customizing Settings ........... 309
6.4 Change Management for Developments .....................313
6.5 Transport Management ............................................. 318
6.5.1 Transport Organizer Tools ..................................... 318
6.5.2 Transport Strategy ................................................. 319
6.5.3 Import Queue and Import Buffer ............................ 326
6.5.4 Transports Between Transport Groups ................... 328
6.5.5 Transports Between Transport Domains ................. 329
6.5.6 Using the Transport Control Program ..................... 333
6.5.7 Logging Transports ................................................ 335
6.5.8 Transports Between Unicode and
Non-Unicode Systems .................................................... 337
6.6 Tips and Tricks ......................................................... 338
6.7 Summary .................................................................. 339

7 System Lifecycle ...........................................................341


7.1 Installation ................................................................ 341
7.1.1 Installation Tools ................................................... 341
7.1.2 Phases ...................................................................344
7.1.3 Unattended Installation .......................................... 355
7.2 System Maintenance ................................................. 357
7.2.1 Client Tools ........................................................... 357
7.2.2 SAP Support Packages, Patches, and Corrections.. 364
7.2.3 Maintaining the Oracle Database ............................ 377
7.2.4 Maintaining the Operating System .......................... 384
7.3 Upgrades ................................................................ 386
7.3.1 SAP Upgrade ...................................................... 386
7.3.2 Oracle Upgrade ................................................... 402
7.4 Summary ................................................................ 404

8 Performance ...............................................................405


8.1 Administrative and Program-Based Problems .......... 406
8.2 Analyzing Administrative Performance Problems ..... 408
8.2.1 Analyzing the Hardware and Operating System .... 409
8.2.2 Analyzing the Database ....................................... 416
8.2.3 Analyzing the SAP System .................................. 458
8.3 Analyzing Program-Based Performance Problems:
SQL Optimization ........................................................ 473
8.3.1 Two Goals: Functionality and Performance .......... 474
8.3.2 Effects ................................................................ 475
8.3.3 Problem Analysis Tools ...................................... 477
8.3.4 Detailed Analysis of SQL Statements ................. 480
8.3.5 Prevention: The Silver Bullet ............................... 485
8.3.6 Indexes for Faster Access .................................. 488
8.4 Summary .............................................................. 492

9 System Operation and Monitoring ..............................495


9.1 Monitoring in the SAP Environment: Motivation
and Scope ... ...............................................................495
9.1.1 Monitoring Areas .............................................. 496
9.1.2 Monitoring Problems ......................................... 499
9.1.3 Solutions for SAP Monitoring ............................ 500
9.2 Parameters for Monitoring an SAP System
Based on Oracle ........................................................ 502
9.2.1 Monitoring the Oracle Database ....................... 503
9.2.2 Monitoring the SAP System .............................. 517
9.2.3 Monitoring the Hardware and Operating
System ...................................................................... 533
9.3 Background Jobs in the Scope of Monitoring ....... 538
9.3.1 SAP Standard Jobs .......................................... 538
9.3.2 Oracle Jobs ...................................................... 543
9.4 Summary ............................................................. 544
 

10 Backup, Restore, and Recovery .......................545


10.1 What Must Be Backed Up? ............................... 547
10.1.1 Interaction of Oracle Processes and
Database Objects ....................................................... 549
10.1.2 Operating Modes of the Oracle Database ........ 553
10.1.3 Archiver Stuck ............................................... 556
10.2 Data Backup Methods ....................................... 561
10.2.1 Data Export .................................................... 561
10.2.2 Offline Data Backup ........................................ 562
10.2.3 Online Data Backup ........................................ 564
10.3 Recovery Methods ............................................ 568
10.3.1 Recovery from an Offline Data Backup ........... 572
10.3.2 Recovery from an Online Data Backup ............ 573
10.3.3 Error Scenario: Loss of a Normal Tablespace .. 574
10.3.4 Partial Restore and Complete Recovery ...........575
10.3.5 Database Reset ..............................................576
10.3.6 Point-in-Time Recovery .................................. 577
10.3.7 Full Restore and Complete Recovery .............. 578
10.4 BR*Tools for Backup, Restore, and Recovery ..579
10.4.1 Data Backup Using BRBACKUP ..................582
10.4.2 Backing Up Redo Log Files Using BRARCHIVE....... 592
10.4.3 Restoring Using BRRESTORE .................................. 602
10.4.4 Recovering the Database Using BRRECOVER ......... 606
10.4.5 Post-Processing for an Incomplete Recovery ............ 612
10.4.6 BR*Tools and Temporary Tablespaces ..................... 614
10.4.7 Disaster Recovery Using BR*Tools ........................... 614
10.4.8 BR*Tools in Windows Environments .......................... 616
10.4.9 Backup Media and Volume Management ................... 617
10.5 Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) ............................. 622
10.5.1 Backups Without Backup Library ................................ 627
10.5.2 Backups with the SAP Backup Library ......................... 628
10.5.3 Backups with an External Backup Library .................... 629
10.6 Other Error Scenarios .................................................... 629
10.6.1 Loss of a Control File .................................................. 630
10.6.2 Loss of All Control Files and the System Tablespace
and Rollback Tablespace ..................................................... 631
10.6.3 Loss of the System Tablespace and Rollback
Tablespace .......................................................................... 636
10.6.4 Loss of a Data File of a Temporary Tablespa.ce......... 637
10.6.5 Loss of an Online Redo Log File ............................... 639
10.6.6 Loss of an Online Redo Log Group .......................... 641
10.6.7 Loss of All Online Redo Log Files ............................ 645
10.6.8 Loss of Offline Redo Log Files ................................. 646
10.6.9 Database Crash During an Online Backup ................ 647
10.7 Backup Strategies ...................................................... 649
10.7.1 Partial Backups ....................................................... 655
10.7.2 Two-Phase Data Backup ........................................ 657
10.7.3 Standby Databases ................................................. 658
10.7.4 Split Mirror Databases ............................................ 660
10.8 Tips and Tricks ......................................................... 665
10.9 Summary ................................................................... 666

11 Administrating the Java Stack .........................................669


11.1 Using Java in SAP Systems .........................................670
11.2 Architecture of the J2EE Engine ................................. 673
11.2.1 Internal Structure ..................................................... 678
11.2.2 Interplay of the Java Stack and the Database ........... 686
11.2.3 Monitoring ................................................................ 695
11.3 Java Software Logistics ................................................ 705
11.3.1 SAP NetWeaver Development Infrastructure .............. 705
11.3.2 SAP Component Model ............................................. 707
11.3.3 Patching Java Instances and Applications ................... 709
11.4 Tips and Tricks ............................................................. 714
11.4.1 Profile Parameters for the J2EE Engine ....................... 714
11.4.2 Parameters of the Property File .................................. 717
11.4.3 Minimum Configuration of the instance.properties File 719
11.5 Summary ...................................................................... 720

12 SAP NetWeaver BI and Oracle .........................................723


12.1 Basics and Concepts of Data Warehousing .................... 723
12.1.1 OLAP and OLTP ...................................................... 723
12.1.2 Data Warehouse Architecture .................................... 724
12.1.3 Extraction, Transformation, Loading ........................... 726
12.1.4 Data Structures and Design of a Data Warehouse ....... 728
12.1.5 Operations for Data Analysis ...................................... 732
12.1.6 Data Mining .............................................................. 732
12.1.7 Benefits ..................................................................... 733
12.2 Data Warehousing with Oracle .................................... 733
12.2.1 Technology and Architecture .................................... 734
12.2.2 Concepts and Language Extensions in Oracle ............. 738
12.2.3 Tools .......................................................................... 741
12.3 SAP NetWeaver BI: An Overview ................................ 742
12.3.1 Business Content ....................................................... 744
12.3.2 Data Modeling ........................................................... 745
12.3.3 Modeling of Business Intelligence Objects ................. 750
12.3.4 Basics of Data Extraction ............................................ 752
12.3.5 Loading of Master and Transaction Data .................... 755
12.3.6 Delta Extraction from Source Systems ........................ 758
12.3.7 Reporting ................................................................... 760
12.4 SAP NetWeaver BI on Oracle ..................................... 765
12.4.1 SAP NetWeaver BI Tables and Indices in the Oracle
Database ............................................................................. 766
12.4.2 Configurations of the Oracle Database ....................... 770
12.4.3 PGA and Temporary Tablespace ............................... 774
12.4.4 Statistics for SAP NetWeaver BI Tables .................... 778
12.4.5 Oracle Data Miner and the SAP BI Accelerator.......... 779
12.5 Summary ...................................................................... 782

13 Afterword and Outlook ....................................................785


Appendix.............................................................................787


A Flight Data Model ............................................................ 789
A.1 SQL Script for Creating the Database ........................... 789
A.2 Perl Script for Generating the Database Content ........... 790
B General Options of the BR*Tools ................................... 791
B.1 Functions of BRSPACE .............................................. 791
B.2 Functions of BRARCHIVE .......................................... 792
B.3 Functions of BRCONNECT ........................................ 793
B.4 Functions of BRBACKUP ........................................... 794
B.5 Functions of BRRESTORE .......................................... 795
B.6 Functions of BRRECOVER ......................................... 796
C References ..................................................................... 797
D Authors .......................................................................... 799

Index .................................................................................. 801


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