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SAP R/3 Handbook, Second Edition

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SAP R/3 Handbook, Second Edition
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Here one can read and download the complete guide on SAP R/3 Handbook, (Second Edition) which explains What Is SAP R/3, The Architecture of SAP R/3,  Installation Concepts and Guidelines,  Distributing R/3 Systems, Using SAP R/3,  The Transport System etc.

Chapter 1: What Is SAP R/3?.........4

Overview............4

SAP AG: The Company Behind R/3..............4
Profile and Evolution.....5
Strategy and Products.....6
R/3 Release 3.0.....8
R/3 Release 3.1.....8
R/3 Release 4.0.....9
R/3 Release 4.5............11
EnjoySAP: R/3 Release 4.6...........11
SAP Transformation: From a Single-Product Company to a Global Business Solutions Company...11
SAP Industry Solutions.................13
The Emergence of the New Dimension Products............14
Solution Maps.....15
SAPnet-R/3 Front End (OSS)................16
Partners...............18
SAP Services Overview.....19
Description of R/3.....20
Multitier Client/Server Solutions...........22
Open Technology........23
User Interface.....24
ABAP Development Workbench...........25
Application Integration..................26
Customizing Tools.......26
R/3 Business Engineer...................27
R/3 Applications Overview..................28
Financial Applications..................28
Human Resources Applications.............30
Logistics Applications..................31
Cross Application Modules...........34

Chapter 2: The Architecture of SAP R/3...............36

Overview..........36
R/3 Basis Software....36
Basic Architectural Concepts...............37
Transaction.........37
Dialog Step.........38
Logical Units of Work (LUWs).............38
Clients........39
The System Central Interfaces.............40
Operating System Interface...........40
The Dispatcher Process.................41
Work Process Architecture............42
Services: Work Processes Types.........44
Dialog Work Processes.................45
Background Work Processes.........46
Spool Work Process.....48
Enqueue Work Process..................48
Update Work Process....................50
Message Server............51
Gateway Server...........52
Presentation Interface.........53
Database Interface.....53
SAP R/3 Communication Protocols and Interfaces........55
Memory Management........56
The Concept of a SAP Instance...........58
Building the Client/Server SAP R/3 System.........58

Chapter 3: Installation Concepts and Guidelines..........60

Overview..........60
Getting Started..........61
Elements in a SAP R/3 Installation...............61
Installation Steps.......62

Step 1: Sizing the System..............63
Step 2: Deciding On the Installation Type......65
Step 3: Checking Installation Requirements............65
Step 4: Installing Hardware, Base Software, and Configuring the Network...............66
Step 5: R/3 Installation Notes........67
Step 6: Adapting Systems to SAP Requirements.............68
Step 7: Designing the Layout of File Systems.........69
Step 8: Installing the R3SETUP Tool....74
Step 9: Install Central Instance...............75
Step 10: Install Database Software.........76
Step 11: Build and Load the Database............77
Step 12: Import ABAP Report Loads.....78
Finishing Up.......78
Installing a Presentation Server On a Windows PC........78
Postinstallation Steps.........80
Licensing the Installation..............81
Starting and Stopping the SAP R/3 System....81
Performing a Full Backup.............81
Remote Connection to SAP...........82
Optional Postinstallation Steps...............82
Further Guidelines for Productive Environments...........82
Considerations for Oracle VLDBs (Very Large Databases)............83

Chapter 4: Distributing R/3 Systems............85

Overview..........85
SAP Services Distribution and the Client/Server Architecture................85
Centralized SAP Installations........85
Factors for Distributing SAP.........87
The SAP Client/Server Architecture: Advantages and Disadvantages.......87
SAP Servers........88
SAP Services......89
Guidelines for Distributed Configurations with the R/3 System..............89
Directory Structure of R/3 Systems..............91
Kernel Directory: What Do These Programs Do?............93
Profiles.............96
Profile Types......97
Setting Up the Central System Log............102
Buffer Synchronization in Distributed Configurations..................103
Central and Local Storage of Executable Files under UNIX.........104
Starting and Stopping SAP R/3.........105
Starting and Stopping R/3 Under Windows NT.............108
User Distribution: Logon Load Balancing and the SAPlogon Utility....109
Logon Groups Configuration...............109
The SAPlogon Application.........111
The Network in Distributed SAP R/3 Environments............115

Chapter 5: Using SAP R/3...........117

Logging On and Off the System........117
Passwords.........119
Logging Off......121
The User Interface: Main Elements of the R/3 Window...............121
The Standard Toolbar..................123
The Screen Layout Menu............124
Shortcuts...........131
System Status Information..........132
Working with R/3 User Sessions................132
Moving Around the R/3 System........133
Moving Around with Transaction Codes......134
Working with Information.................135
Possible Entries for an Input Field.......136
Facilities for Entering the Same Data Repeatedly...................137
Input Field Default Values with User Parameters...................138
Getting Help in the R/3 System.........139
Working with Search Helps...............141
Using Search Helps with the Simple Method........143
Using Search Helps with the Fast Method....143
Working with Reports......144
Looking for Reports....................145
Executing Reports......145
Using Selection Criteria..............146
Working with Reports Variants............146
Working with Background Jobs.........148
Scheduling Background Jobs...............149
User Printing...........151
The Print Screen........151
Monitoring the Status of Your Print Requests...............153
Additional User Utilities....................153
Sending Short Messages..............153
Downloading Files to the Windows PC........154
EnjoySAP User Features....................154

Chapter 6: The Transport System...............156

Highlights................156
Overview of the Complete Process of Transporting Objects from a Source System to a Target
System............157
Transport System Concepts...............159
Development Objects..................159
Roles Involved in the Transport Process.......159
SAP System Group.....159
Transport Layer.........160
Transport Routes.......160
Change Requests.......161
Tasks........162
Development Teams....................162
Development Classes..................163
Version Management..................163
Requests Documentation.............163
Repairs and Original Objects...............163
System Types..........164
System Change Options..............165
Functions of the Systems.............166
System Types from the Perspective of the Workbench Organizer and Transport System..........167
Managing Development Classes........169

Configuration of the Transport System.......170

Step 1. Initializing the Change and Transport Organizer........171
Step 2. Setting Up the Transport Directory and the tp Program (TPPARAM)..........172
Step 3. Configuring the Transport Management System (TMS).....172
Step 4. Setting the System Change Option and the Client Settings..........173

The Transport Management System (TMS)........173
Configuring Systems and Domains......173
Configuring Transport Routes..............176
Distributing and Verifying TMS Configuration.............177
Working with the Workbench Organizer....178
Creating Change Requests...........179
Releasing Tasks and Requests..............180
Monitoring Transports and Repairs......181
Transport Rules.........181
Checking Transport Results........183
Object Attributes.......185
Workbench Organizer Tools................185
The Transport Organizer....................186
Performing Transports with the TMS.........187
Using tp, the Transport Control Program............189
Setting Up the tp Program...........190
Overview of Options for the tp Program.......194
Working with Imports Using tp............195
Managing Special Transports...............197
The Interface Between tp and ABAP............198
Overview of the R3trans Program..............198

Chapter 7: Introduction to the ABAP Workbench.....200

Overview........200
Introduction to the Development Environment of the SAP R/3 System.........200
Overview of the ABAP Workbench Tools....201
Basic Concepts of the Development Environment..................202
Starting the ABAP Workbench..........203
Working with the Repository Browser.......205
Object Lists.......206
Selecting Single Objects..............206
Maintaining Development Objects from the Repository Browser............207
Navigation Options.....207
The Repository Information System...........208
Using the Repository Information System....209
Performing Searches....................209
The "Subobject" Utility...............210
The Where-used List Utility................210
The Application Hierarchy................210
Using the Data Browser....211
Introduction to the ABAP Editor................211
Getting Started with the ABAP Editor..........212
Specifying Program Attributes.............213
The ABAP Source Code Editor............214
Saving Program Code..................217
Checking Program Source Code..........218
Editing Help Facilities.................219
Editor Navigation Functions................220
Special Navigation Tools............220
Downloading and Uploading Source Code............221
Special Editor Features................221
Introduction to the Screen Painter...............221
The DYNPRO Concept...............222
Starting the Screen Painter..........222
Using the Screen Painter.............223
Screen Flow Logic......229
Testing and Verifying Screen Painter Objects...............229
Generating a Screen....229
Introduction to the Menu Painter................230
Main Menu Painter Objects.........230
Starting the Menu Painter............231
Using the Menu Painter...............232
Creating a GUI Title....................235
Testing and Generating GUI Status......235
Activating and Deactivating Functions.........235
Introduction to Area Menus........235
The Function Builder.......236
Function Builder Structure..........236
Working with the Function Builder......237
Checking and Activating.............241
Testing and Performance.............242
Calling Function Modules Remotely with Remote Function Call (RFC)..................243
The SQL Trace Tool.........243
Creating a SQL Trace..................243
Analyzing a SQL Trace...............244
Runtime Analysis....246
Creating a Performance Data File (Runtime Analysis)...........246
Analyzing a Performance Data File.....247
Overview of the Workbench Debugging Tools............248
Starting the ABAP Debugger...............249
Elements of the ABAP Debugger........249
Breakpoints.......250
Navigating Through Program Code.....251
Debugger Settings.....252
Displaying and Modifying Field Values.......252
Displaying and Managing Internal Tables....253
Debugging and Database.............254
Introduction to the ABAP Programming Language Features........254

Chapter 8: ABAP Data Dictionary..............256

Overview........256
Definition of Data Dictionary............256
Utility of a Data Dictionary.........257
The ABAP Dictionary in the R/3 Systems..........257
The Relational Data Model................258
Concepts of the Relational Data Model........259
Relationship Types.....260
Dependency Factors and Foreign Keys.........261
Relational Operations..................262
Starting the ABAP Dictionary...........262
Data Dictionary Objects..............263
Tables in the ABAP Dictionary.........265
Pooled Tables, Table Pools, Cluster Tables, and Table Clusters.....265
Working with Tables...................267
Defining Fields..........269
Foreign Keys....270
Text Tables.......270
Keys and Primary Keys...............270
Technical Settings.....271
Generating the Table in the Database............272
Indexes..............272
Append Structures.....273
Creating an Append Structure..............274
Customizing Includes..................275
Substructures....275
Data Elements............276
Working with Domains...............278
Working with Complex Objects: The Aggregate Objects.............280
Base Tables in Aggregate Objects........280
Working with Views...................281
Working with Matchcode Objects........283
Case Study: Creating a Matchcode......283
Working with Lock Objects........290
Working with the Database Utility.............293
Processing Types........294
Database Utility Functions with Cluster and Pool Tables................295
Database Utility Functions with Matchcodes.........295
Activation in the Dictionary........296
Adjusting Database Structures.............297
Adjustment Modes.....298
How to Adjust a Table.................298
Conversion Process and Restart...........301
Version Management in the ABAP Dictionary............301
The Versions Catalog..................302
Working with Search Helps...............304
Creating a Search Help................304
Search Help Structure..................305
Example: the USTU Collective Search Help.........306

Chapter 9: Management of Users, Authorizations, and Profiles..........309

Highlights................309
Overview of User Administration...............309
Managing User Master Records.........310
Creating Users...........310
User Master Records Fields........313
Available Defaults and Options for User Master Records...............314
Managing User Groups...............316
Modifying User Master Records..........316
Locking and Unlocking Users..............317
Making Modifications to a Group of Users............317
Users Information System...........317
Password Management....318
Password Restrictions and Requirements......318
Restricting Password Strings................319
Managing R/3 Superusers..................320
User SAP*........320
Defining a New Superuser..........321
User DDIC........321
The Authorization System in SAP R/3.......321
Authorization Profiles.................322
Composite Profiles.....323
Authorizations...........323
Authorization Objects..................324
Authorization Fields....................324
Activity Groups.........325
User Buffer.......326
The Activation Concept in Profiles and Authorizations.........326
Case Study: From the Authorization Fields to the Profiles, a Practical Example............327
Working with the Profile Generator...........331
How the Profile Generator Works........332
Configuring the Profile Generator........333
Basic Concepts for Working with Activity Groups................334
Creating Activity Groups............335
Predefined Profiles and Basis System Authorization Objects................338
Tracing Authorizations....339
Using the System Trace for Tracing Authorizations...............339
Using the SU53 Transaction........340
Organizing the Maintenance of the Authorization System............340
Creating New Authorization Checks..........341
Using Authorization Checks with Table TSTC.............341
Using the ABAP AUTHORITY-CHECK....342
Technical Details of Tables and Instance Profile Parameters for Users, Authorizations, and
Profiles...........344
Technical Details: User-and Authorization System-Related Tables.......344
Technical Details: System Profile Parameters for Managing Users and Authorizations....345

Chapter 10: General Administration Utilities.....347

Overview........347
Basic SAP R/3 System Administration......347
Checking the Installation.............348
Displaying and Monitoring the SAP Instances and Application Servers...................348
Monitoring the System Work Processes.......349
Monitoring and Managing User Sessions.....352
Posting System Messages............353
Displaying and Managing Update Records.........354
Update Process Concepts............355
Distribution of Update Work Processes........355
Monitoring Update Records........356
Available Update Functions........357
Basic Troubleshooting with Updating...........359
Displaying and Managing Lock Entries.....361
Troubleshooting of Lock Entries..........362
Working with the Client Copy Options......364
Client Copy Tools......365
Creating a New Client.................365
Requirements for Creating Clients and for the Copy Process..........368
Copying a Client in the Same System...........369
Deleting Clients.........370
Client Copy Logs........371
Restarting a Client Copy Process.........371
Transporting Clients Between Two SAP Systems..................371
Copying Individual Tables Entries Between Clients..............373
Copying Tables Entries Between Two Different Systems...............373
The R/3 System Logs........374
The System Log Selection Criteria Screen....376
System Log Types......377
Displaying the Log Report..........377
Log Message Codes....378
System Log Environment Utilities.......378
Using the System Log Expert Mode....379
Displaying ABAP Short Dumps........379
The System Tracing Utilities.............381
Using the System Trace...............381
Using Developer Traces..............385

Chapter 11: SAP Housekeeping-The Computer Center Management System (CCMS)..............388

Overview........388
Introduction to Common R/3 and CCMS Concepts.............388
Administrator Duties with the CCMS...........389
Starting the CCMS.....390
Maintaining Profiles........390
Importing the Profiles: First-time Maintenance............391
Profile Reference Server.............391
Profile Versions.........392
Reports RSPARAM and RSPFPAR....392
Profile Maintenance Options................392
Example: Maintenance of an Instance Profile........394
Working with Operation Modes........397
Configuring Operation Modes..............398
Define/Configure CCMS Instances......399
Assigning Operation Modes to Instances......400
Restrictions on Work Process Distribution............401
Configuring the Timetable for Operation Mode Switches...............402
Checking the Consistency of Operation Mode Configurations........403
Operation Mode Switching.........403
Technical Details: Operation Modes....404
Overview of the CCMS Monitors...............405
The R/3 Control Panel.................406
The System Monitor....................407
Performance Monitors.................408
Workload Monitor......410
Work Process Load Monitor................413
Operating System Collector and Monitor.....413
Buffer Performance Monitors..............416
Color Coding in the Global Alert Monitor....420
Color Coding in the Performance Indicators..........424
Setting Alert Monitor Thresholds.........424
System Log Thresholds...............424
Database Performance Monitor for the Oracle Database..............426

Chapter 12: Alert Monitors.......426

Overview........427
Managing SAP System Alerts (3.x)............431
Alert Monitors with Releases R/3 4.x.........434
4.0 Monitoring Architecture........434
Monitoring Tree.........435
Monitors and Monitor Sets..........436
Navigating Across Monitors (Monitoring Tree)............437
Customizing Alerts.....440
Customizing Tasks.....442
Tool Definition and Release........443
Features with Later R/3 Releases................445

Chapter 13: Background Jobs....446

Overview........446
Introduction to Background Processing......446
Background Jobs........447
Components of the Background Jobs............448
Starting Background Processing..........448
Defining Background Jobs.................448
Job Definition Fields...................449
Job Steps...........451
Defining the Start Date and Time for the Job........454
Defining a Repeat Interval Period........458
Specifying Job Print Parameters...........459
Specifying the Spool List Recipient.....459
Basic Management Operations on Background Jobs............460
The Job Status...........461
Modifying Scheduled Jobs..........462
Deleting Jobs....462
Analyzing Canceled Jobs............463
Authorizations for Background Jobs..........463
Using the Graphical Job Monitoring Tool...........464
Troubleshooting the Background Processing System....................465
Displaying the Job Log and Analyzing the Job Status............465
Analyzing the Work Processes and System Log of an Application Server...............466
The CCMS Job Analysis Tools............466
Common Background Job Problems....469

Chapter 14: The SAP Printing System................471

Overview........471
Elements of the Printing System: Concepts of the SAP Spool System Architecture................471
The Spool Work Process.............473
Spool Servers, Hierarchies, and Load Balancing....................474
Server Selection.........475
Defining Spool Server.................475
Managing Spool Requests.................476
Printing and Displaying Spool Requests.......478
Displaying and Modifying the Spool Request Attributes................478
Displaying Output Request Log Files...........479
Deleting Spool Requests.............479
Connecting Printers to the Operating Systems Spool....................479
Defining R/3 Printer Devices.............480
Logical R/3 Output Devices and Device Pools..............484
Introduction to the SAP Access Methods......486
Definition and Logical Components of Output Devices................487
Defining New Device Types................488
Managing Printer Character Sets..........490
Working with Print Controls................492
Managing Page Formats..............495
Managing Formats......496
Device Initialization...................497
Case Study: Defining a Printer and Creating a New Device Type for It.........498
Initializing the Device Format..............501
Front End Printing...........503
The SAPLPD Driver Program...........504
Starting SAPLPD.......505
The Temporary Sequential (TemSe) Objects Database.................505
The Spool System and FAX Solutions for R/3....506
Troubleshooting Printing Problems............506
SAP Printing System Administration Tasks........507
Spool System Instance Profile Parameters....507

Chapter 15: SAP Administration for Oracle Databases..............509

Overview........509
Introduction to the Oracle Database Architecture Under R/3 Systems...........510
Oracle Directory Structure for R/3.......511
Oracle Environment Variables.............511
The Parameter File init.ora..........512
Data Storage: Tablespaces and Data Files....512
Redo Log Files..........515
Archived Redo Log Files............515
Control File.......516
The Alert File............516
Oracle Memory Areas.................517
Introduction to Oracle Background Processes...............518
Startup and Shutdown of the Oracle Database...............519
Introduction to Cost-Based Optimizer.........520
SAP R/3 Database Administrator Common Tasks...............521
Introduction to sapdba.......522
Internal Database Users and Passwords........522
Command Mode sapdba..............523
Configuring sapdba: The Initialization Profile init.dba..........525
Using the sapdba Expert Mode............526
Displaying Status Information About the Database Instance...........528
Starting and Shutting Down the Database from sapdba..........528
Displaying Log Files and Log Cleaning Tasks..............530
Setting and Switching the Archive Log Mode...............530
Tablespace Administration with sapdba.....531
Checking the Free Space and Fragmentation of Tablespaces..........532
Extending Tablespace Storage Space............534
Creating New Tablespaces..........537
Introduction to Database Reorganizations Using sapdba..............538
What Can Be Solved with Reorganizations?.........539
When Is a Reorganization Needed?.....539
Analyzing Whether a Reorganization Is Needed....................540
Reorganization Types..................542
Storage Parameters....544
Avoiding Reorganizations: Changing Storage Parameters..............545
Considerations Before Performing Reorganizations...............546
Speeding Up Reorganizations..............547
Running Reorganizations............550
Performing Reorganizations Using the sapdba Reorganization Menu.....551
Restarting a Reorganization........560
Exporting and Importing Database Objects.........562
Case Study: Guidelines for an Export/Import Procedure of a Customer Database..........564
Backing Up the Database...................567
SAP Backup Concept and Security Recommendations..........569
The brbackup Menu Options................569
Backing Up the Archived Redo Logs: brarchive..........573
Archiving Backup Strategies and Requirements............573
The brarchive Menu Options................574
BRBACKUP and BRARCHIVE in One Run........577
Consistent Online Backup...........577
Completion of BRBACKUP and BRRESTORE Backups...............578
Two-Level Backups...................578
Standby Database Backup Scenario.....578
Split Mirror Disks Backup..........579
Asynchronous Verification of Backups........579
Introduction to Database Restore and Recovery Concepts and Procedures....579
Recovery Concepts.....580
What Is Supported with sapdba?..........581
Requirements for Database Recovery with sapdba Utilities............581
Partial Restore and Complete Recovery........582
Restoring and Recovering the Database: Further Options...............585
Restoring Individual Tablespace..........588
Restoring Individual Files...........588
Introduction to Recovery Functions Using SVRMGRL.........590

Chapter 16: SAP R/3 Technical Implementation and Operation........591

What Does Implementing R/3 Mean?.........591
Technical Implementation with ASAP.......593
Getting Ready for Implementing and Supporting R/3: An Approach to Roles.........594
Introduction to R/3 Technical Implementation....598
Introduction to a SAP R/3 Procedures Guide......606
The Administration and Operation Manual.........608
Systems Management......610
Skills Sets for Systems Managers........611
Planning Systems Management............613
Operation Checklist....613
Organizing the Workbench Organizer and Managing Transport Requests...............615
Information Integrity Issues...............617
An Approach to Backup Strategies in SAP Installations...............617
Performing Backups with brbackup.....619
Operating System Backup Utilities......619
The Triple-mirror Approach................620
Standby Database Server and the Roll-forward Approach.............621
An Introduction to High Availability and Cluster Systems...........621
Performance and Tuning Basics........622
Workload Analysis.....623
Introduction to Helpdesk....................624
Supporting SAP: Troubleshooting..............626
A Basic Technical Troubleshooting Handbook.............627
SAP Operation and Maintenance Basic Laws.....629
Appendix A: SAProuter and Remote Connection to SAP....................631
Remote Connections to SAP Support Servers.....631
Guidelines for Establishing a Remote Connection to SAP Service Network............632
Configuring the Network Connection...........633
SAProuter................635
Setting Up SAProuter..................636
Remote Connection Security Issues............641
Appendix B: Managing Batch Input Sessions.....643
Highlights................643
The Sessions Overview: Selecting Sessions........645
Processing Batch Input Sessions........646
Results of Sessions Processing..........649
Analyzing Batch Input Sessions........650
Displaying the Sessions Summary Statistics.......651
Displaying Session Logs....................651
Deleting Sessions....652
Restarting Abnormally Terminated or Interrupted Sessions.........652
Locking and Unlocking Sessions................652
Displaying Session Queue Information......653
Batch Input Session Management Tasks....653
Authorizations for Running Batch Input.....654
Common Batch Input Errors..............654
List of Figures.............655
Chapter 1: What Is SAP R/3?............655
Chapter 2: The Architecture of SAP R/3....655
Chapter 3: Installation Concepts and Guidelines..........655
Chapter 4: Distributing R/3 Systems..........656
Chapter 5: Using SAP R/3.................656
Chapter 6: The Transport System...............657
Chapter 7: Introduction to the ABAP Workbench........657
Chapter 8: ABAP Data Dictionary.............658
Chapter 9: Management of Users, Authorizations, and Profiles............659
Chapter 10: General Administration Utilities......659
Chapter 11: SAP Housekeeping-The Computer Center Management System (CCMS)..........660
Chapter 12: Alert Monitors................660
Chapter 13: Background Jobs............661
Chapter 14: The SAP Printing System.......661
Chapter 15: SAP Administration for Oracle Databases.................662
Chapter 16: SAP R/3 Technical Implementation and Operation............663
Appendix A: SAProuter and Remote Connection to SAP.............663
Appendix B: Managing Batch Input Sessions.....663

List of Tables..............664

Chapter 3: Installation Concepts and Guidelines..........664
Chapter 5: Using SAP R/3.................664
Chapter 7: Introduction to the ABAP Workbench........664
Chapter 8: ABAP Data Dictionary.............664
Chapter 12: Alert Monitors................664
Chapter 14: The SAP Printing System.......664
Chapter 15: SAP Administration for Oracle Databases.................664
Chapter 16: SAP R/3 Technical Implementation and Operation............665
Appendix B: Managing Batch Input Sessions.....665


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