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Python vs Java - Which is Better?

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Python vs Java - Which is Better?
Stechies

Difference Between Java & Python

If you are here to read about which one is better between Java and Python, I am not going to tell which one is better. Instead, I am going to talk about the difference between java and python. After reading the article it shall be up to the reader to interpret which one is better according to their requirements. Java and Python are different from many perspectives. Some of the differences are objective in nature and we can’t debate upon them and some are matter of opinion and what users prefer.

Though both Java and Python are popular in their own right, they have certain differences and similarities to their name. When it comes to serving at the community level, Java ranks on top of the list of large corporate sponsors. The support for Python is more or less distributed. Belonging to the Algol-type family of languages, Python’s uses whitespace sets that have a different syntax than Java; it is set apart from the same in terms of mainstream usage. On the other hand, Java gains familiarity as it boasts of C-like inclusions of braces, semi-colons, commas, etc.

Let’s first get a brief knowledge about both the programming languages then we shall discuss the areas of differences.Java and Python are the two most popular and powerful language presently.  

What is Python?

Python is an object-oriented, high-level, interpreted programming language. It boasts of dynamic semantics. Python is very useful for Rapid Application Development because of its features of dynamic typing, built-in data structures, dynamic binding, etc.

  • It is also used as a glue/ scripting language for connecting Python components together.
  • Easy to learn and having a simple syntax, Python incurs low program maintenance costs and imparts high readability.
  • It utilizes packages and modules to encourage code reusability and program modularity.
  • The standard library and interpreter in Python can be freely distributed and used free of charge on all major platforms.
  • The debugger is coded in Python itself, thereby adding testimony to Python's introspective powers.

What is Java?

Java refers to a class-based, concurrent, general-purpose, object-oriented, high-level programming language. It comprises of the runtime environment (JRE) consisting of JVM that is the core of the Java platform.

  • Similar to C++ in many ways, Java presents advanced/simplified features. It is capable of running on most platforms and can be accessed free of charge.
  • In Java, the feature of concurrency allows users to execute many statements rather than executing them sequentially.
  • Java is an independent programming language that once written can be run on any platform that’s supportive of Java.
  • Java is a popular computing platform that allows for easy development of applications.

Beginners sometimes get really confused if it comes to choosing between these two:  

Python-vs-Java

So let’s start analyzing the differences on the basis of the following choices. 

WhiteSpaces

Whitespace or Negative Space refers to the unmarked/blank/empty parts of a webpage. In context to web pages designed in Python and Java, whitespaces refer to the areas present in between images, text, margins, graphics, columns, other elements, etc.

Whitespaces smooth things out as well as provide an elegant appearance to any given web page in the most simplistic of ways. They are interspersed with graphical and text elements and skilfully deliver direct and clear messages.

Whitespaces are useful in organizing elements and textual content and draw the attention of visitors to certain elements. A perfect example of white space usage lies on the homepage of Google wherein the focus remains on Search, the most important feature of the page rather than other elements.

In Python, whitespace refers to characters used for providing spacing. They have an "empty" representation in this language. As per Python developers, whitespaces refer to tabs and spaces as well as certain exotic Unicode spaces( not so useful!).

isspace() is default and in-built method utilized in Python for string handling. It returns “True” in call characters present in the string are whitespace characters, else, “False” is returned.

The java.lang.Character.isWhitespace() in Java is a method built in Java by default. It determines whether any specified character (Unicode code point) is capable of being categorized as a white space as per its syntax.

DuckTyping

Duck typing in terms of programming languages like Python and Java refers to the application of a process called the duck test. This test is used for determining if any object is capable of being used for a specific/ defined purpose or not. In case of normal typing, this suitability is best determined by the type of an object. 

For instance, there may be two object types – Car and Person that are supportive of the action called “run”. However, the object type “car” also supports the method “refuel”. As long as only “run” is called upon to act on the objects, it does not make a difference whether the object type is a car or person. This is referred to as Duck Typing

Python and Java are dynamically but robustly typed and easy programming languages to write codes in. In Python, the codes are bound to the strongly typed objects right at the runtime. 

However, there is an important condition on the object type that refers to a name. It should support the operations needed for specific object instances present in a given program. The classes in Java and other object-oriented languages play the role of model concepts that are purely mental constructs. They present essential attitudes towards concrete items of reality via duck typing and other allied methods. 

Ease of Code

Though both the languages are easy to write when it comes to the length of the code, python gets the extra point here. Java consists of a long line of codes while python has comparatively fewer lines which make it very time effective. A shorter line of codes makes python easy to understand and write.

Let’s check it out from the example of  “hello world” shown below. 

Java –  

Public class Helloworld    
{             
Public static void main ( String []  args)                
{                     
System.out.printIn 

(“Hello World”);               
 
}                
}

Now let’s look at the example of Python 

Print ( “Hello World” )

After seeing the examples above now we can see that java took 7 lines of code to write a “hello world” while python took only one to do the same. 

Speed

Coming to the point of speed. Java is a compiled language and statically typed while Python is an interpreted language and dynamically typed.  Determining the types of data at runtime makes Python slower one comparatively as the compiled code is faster to execute than interpreted code. 

Portability 

In the points of portability, Java takes away all the limelight. Java runs on JVM, i.e. java virtual machine which can be found anywhere ranging from tiny j2ME phone to large infrastructures. Python isn’t easily portable.  

Syntax 

Let’s take a look at the importance of semicolon, curly braces and indentation to differentiate between java and python. 

a) Use of semicolon- While java requires the use of semicolon at the end of the statement, python does not require anything like this. If you miss the semicolon in the java code, it will throw an error. While writing a statement in Python, the semicolon isn’t used to end the code. 

b) Curly Braces and Indention - to run a Java code, curly braces are a compulsory one while indention isn’t required. But in the case of python, it is totally the opposite of Java. In the case of python, indention is a must and curly braces break the code. 

Database 

Java database connectivity i.e. JDBC is indeed more popular and widely used. When we talk about python, its access layers are weaker than java’s JDBC. This is the primary reason why it is rarely used in enterprises.

Java vs Python Salary Expectation

Here comes the most exciting part. Though both java and python are quite popular and in demand but in recent times there has been a growth in the demand of python engineers. So the demand and supply formula does its work here as the experienced java engineers find it difficult to shift their priority from java to python. Increased demand for python engineers and less supply has led to the increment in the basic salary of python engineers. A fresher python engineer can expect up to 30000 to 35000 INR basic monthly salary while a fresher java engineer can expect up to 25000-30000INR basic monthly salary. But if we go for the experienced one, Java engineers who have more than 5 years of experience can expect up to 65000 INR average monthly salary while python engineers get less compared to the Java engineers. The average salary of experienced python engineers is 60000 INR.

Legacy

If we talk about legacy, Java has an extra edge here. It has a vast history in the enterprises and its more verbose coding style make it typically larger and more numerous than python. Due to less legacy, copy-pasting codes become very difficult for organizations. 

Pros of Python:

  1. Python is more helpful for short programs/prototyping while Java comes in handy for mission-critical/ big projects.
  2. Python is faster to prototype in when compared to Java.
  3. Python has an edge over Java in context to functional programming, tuple return values, lists formatted as first-order primitives, "duck" typing, console for easy debugging, etc.

Cons of Python:

  1. Python is not as scalable as Java when it comes to coding large-sized projects.

Pros of Java:

  1. Java is useful for complicated data structures, very lengthy programs, mission-critical services, etc.
  2. In contrast to Python, Java presents static typing that helps it manage large code scales dextrously.
  3. Python presents AttritbuteError: None while dealing with "toolkits" necessary for re-use and for implementing a wide gamut of functionality. Java can handle such processes with flair.
  4. Java is more readable and verbose than Python. Its tools and IDEs, such as Eclipse, IntelliJ, NetBeans, etc, are impressive in design and functionality alike.

Cons of Java:

  1. Java is statically-typed while dynamic typing is an important feature of Python.

Conclusion

I am not going to tell here which one is better. After seeing the above differences, users can choose one language as per their requirements and preferences.   If one wants a simple and easy to write code with data science requirements, he/she should prefer Python otherwise java may be a perfect choice. 


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