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SAP BW Process Chain Related Interview Questions and Answers

1. What are the extractor types?

• Application Specific
o BW Content FI, HR, CO, SAP CRM, LO Cockpit
o Customer-Generated Extractors LIS, FI-SL, CO-PA
• Cross Application (Generic Extractors)
o DB View, InfoSet, Function Module

2. What are the steps involved in LO Extraction?

The steps are:

o RSA5 Select the DataSources
o LBWE Maintain DataSources and Activate Extract Structures
o LBWG Delete Setup Tables
o 0LI*BW Setup tables
o RSA3 Check extraction and the data in Setup tables
o LBWQ Check the extraction queue
o LBWF Log for LO Extract Structures
o RSA7 BW Delta Queue Monitor

3. How to create a connection with LIS InfoStructures?

• LBW0 Connecting LIS InfoStructures to BW

4. What is the difference between ODS and InfoCube and MultiProvider?

• ODS: Provides granular data, allows overwrite and data is in transparent tables, ideal for drilldown and RRI.
• CUBE: Follows the star schema, we can only append data, ideal for primary reporting.
• MultiProvider: Does not have physical data. It allows to access data from different InfoProviders (Cube, ODS, InfoObject). It is also preferred for reporting.

5. What are Start routines, Transfer routines and Update routines?

• Start Routines: The start routine is run for each DataPackage after the data has been written to the PSA and before the transfer rules have been executed. It allows complex computations for a key figure or a characteristic. It has no return value. Its purpose is to execute preliminary calculations and to store them in global DataStructures. This structure or table can be accessed in the other routines. The entire DataPackage in the transfer structure format is used as a parameter for the routine.

• Transfer / Update Routines: They are defined at the InfoObject level. It is like the Start Routine. It is independent of the DataSource. We can use this to define Global Data and Global Checks.

6. What is the difference between start routine and update routine, when, how and why are they called?

• Start routine can be used to access InfoPackage while update routines are used while updating the Data Targets.

7. What is the table that is used in start routines?

• Always the table structure will be the structure of an ODS or InfoCube. For example if it is an ODS then active table structure will be the table.

8. Explain how you used Start routines in your project?

• Start routines are used for mass processing of records. In start routine all the records of DataPackage is available for processing. So we can process all these records together in start routine. In one of scenario, we wanted to apply size % to the forecast data. For example if material M1 is forecasted to say 100 in May. Then after applying size %(Small 20%, Medium 40%, Large 20%, Extra Large 20%), we wanted to have 4 records against one single record that is coming in the info package. This is achieved in start routine.

9. What are Return Tables?

• When we want to return multiple records, instead of single value, we use the return table in the Update Routine. Example: If we have total telephone expense for a Cost Center, using a return table we can get expense per employee.

10. How do start routine and return table synchronize with each other?

• Return table is used to return the Value following the execution of start routine

11. What is the difference between V1, V2 and V3 updates?

• V1 Update: It is a Synchronous update. Here the Statistics update is carried out at the same time as the document update (in the application tables).
• V2 Update: It is an Asynchronous update. Statistics update and the Document update take place as different tasks.
o V1 & V2 don’t need scheduling.

• Serialized V3 Update: The V3 collective update must be scheduled as a job (via LBWE). Here, document data is collected in the order it was created and transferred into the BW as a batch job. The transfer sequence may not be the same as the order in which the data was created in all scenarios. V3 update only processes the update data that is successfully processed with the V2 update.

12. What is compression?

• It is a process used to delete the Request IDs and this saves space.

13. What is Rollup?

• This is used to load new DataPackages (requests) into the InfoCube aggregates. If we have not performed a rollup then the new InfoCube data will not be available while reporting on the aggregate.

14. What is table partitioning and what are the benefits of partitioning in an InfoCube?

• It is the method of dividing a table which would enable a quick reference. SAP uses fact file partitioning to improve performance. We can partition only at 0CALMONTH or 0FISCPER. Table partitioning helps to run the report faster as data is stored in the relevant partitions. Also table maintenance becomes easier. Oracle, Informix, IBM DB2/390 supports table partitioning while SAP DB, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2/400 do not support table portioning.

15. How many extra partitions are created and why?

• Two partitions are created for date before the begin date and after the end date.

16. What are the options available in transfer rule?

• InfoObject
• Constant
• Routine
• Formula

17. How would you optimize the dimensions?

• We should define as many dimensions as possible and we have to take care that no single dimension crosses more than 20% of the fact table size.

18. What are Conversion Routines for units and currencies in the update rule?

• Using this option we can write ABAP code for Units / Currencies conversion. If we enable this flag then unit of Key Figure appears in the ABAP code as an additional parameter. For example, we can convert units in Pounds to Kilos.

19. Can an InfoObject be an InfoProvider, how and why?

• Yes, when we want to report on Characteristics or Master Data. We have to right click on the InfoArea and select “Insert characteristic as data target”. For example, we can make 0CUSTOMER as an InfoProvider and report on it.

20. What is Open Hub Service?

• The Open Hub Service enables us to distribute data from an SAP BW system into external Data Marts, analytical applications, and other applications. We can ensure controlled distribution using several systems. The central object for exporting data is the InfoSpoke. We can define the source and the target object for the data. BW becomes a hub of an enterprise data warehouse. The distribution of data becomes clear through central monitoring from the distribution status in the BW system.

21. How do you transform Open Hub Data?

• Using BADI we can transform Open Hub Data according to the destination requirement.

22. What is ODS?

• Operational DataSource is used for detailed storage of data. We can overwrite data in the ODS. The data is stored in transparent tables.

23. What are BW Statistics and what is its use?

• They are group of Business Content InfoCubes which are used to measure performance for Query and Load Monitoring.
It also shows the usage of aggregates, OLAP and Warehouse management.

24. What are the steps to extract data from R/3?

• Replicate DataSources
• Assign InfoSources
• Maintain Communication Structure and Transfer rules
• Create and InfoPackage
• Load Data

25. What are the delta options available when you load from flat file?

• The 3 options for Delta Management with Flat Files:
o Full Upload
o New Status for Changed records (ODS Object only)
o Additive Delta (ODS Object & InfoCube)
Q) Under which menu path is the Test Workbench to be found, including in earlier Releases?

The menu path is: Tools - ABAP Workbench - Test - Test Workbench.

Q. 26) I want to delete a BEx query that is in Production system through request. Is anyone aware about it?

A) Have you tried the RSZDELETE transaction?

Q. 27) Errors while monitoring process chains.

A) During data loading. Apart from them, in process chains you add so many process types, for example after loading data into Info Cube, you rollup data into aggregates, now this rolling up of data into aggregates is a process type which you keep after the process type for loading data into Cube. This rolling up into aggregates might fail.

Another one is after you load data into ODS, you activate ODS data (another process type) this might also fail.

Q. 28) In Monitor----- Details (Header/Status/Details) à Under Processing (data packet): Everything OK à Context menu of Data Package 1 (1 Records): Everything OK ---- Simulate update. (Here we can debug update rules or transfer rules.)

SM50 à Program/Mode à Program à Debugging & debug this work process.

Q. 29) PSA Cleansing.

A) You know how to edit PSA. I don't think you can delete single records. You have to delete entire PSA data for a request.

Q. 30) Can we make a datasource to support delta.

A) If this is a custom (user-defined) datasource you can make the datasource delta enabled. While creating datasource from RSO2, after entering datasource name and pressing create, in the next screen there is one button at the top, which says generic delta. If you want more details about this there is a chapter in Extraction book, it's in last pages u find out.

Generic delta services: -

Supports delta extraction for generic extractors according to:

Time stamp
Calendar day
Numeric pointer, such as document number & counter
Only one of these attributes can be set as a delta attribute.
Delta extraction is supported for all generic extractors, such as tables/views, SAP Query and function modules
The delta queue (RSA7) allows you to monitor the current status of the delta attribute

Q. 31) Workbooks, as a general rule, should be transported with the role.

Here are a couple of scenarios:

1. If both the workbook and its role have been previously transported, then the role does not need to be part of the transport.

2. If the role exists in both dev and the target system but the workbook has never been transported, and then you have a choice of transporting the role (recommended) or just the workbook. If only the workbook is transported, then an additional step will have to be taken after import: Locate the WorkbookID via Table RSRWBINDEXT (in Dev and verify the same exists in the target system) and proceed to manually add it to the role in the target system via Transaction Code PFCG -- ALWAYS use control c/control v copy/paste for manually adding!

3. If the role does not exist in the target system you should transport both the role and workbook. Keep in mind that a workbook is an object unto itself and has no dependencies on other objects. Thus, you do not receive an error message from the transport of 'just a workbook' -- even though it may not be visible, it will exist (verified via Table RSRWBINDEXT).  Overall, as a general rule, you should transport roles with workbooks.

Q. 32) How much time does it take to extract 1 million (10 lackhs) of records into an infocube?

A. This depends, if you have complex coding in update rules it will take longer time, or else it will take less than 30 minutes.

Q. 33) What are the five ASAP Methodologies?

A: Project plan, Business Blue print, Realization, Final preparation & Go-Live - support.

1. Project Preparation: In this phase, decision makers define clear project objectives and an efficient decision making process (i.e. Discussions with the client, like what are his needs and requirements etc.). Project managers will be involved in this phase (I guess). A Project Charter is issued and an implementation strategy is outlined in this phase.

2. Business Blueprint: It is a detailed documentation of your company's requirements. (i.e. what are the objects we need to develop are modified depending on the client's requirements).

3. Realization: In this only, the implementation of the project takes place (development of objects etc) and we are involved in the project from here only.

4. Final Preparation: Final preparation before going live i.e. testing, conducting pre-go-live, end user training etc. End user training is given that is in the client site you train them how to work with the new environment, as they are new to the technology.

5. Go-Live & support: The project has gone live and it is into production. The Project team will be supporting the end users.

Q. 34) What is landscape of R/3 & what is landscape of BW. Landscape of R/3 not sure.

Then Landscape of b/w: You have the development system, testing system, production system

Development system: All the implementation part is done in this sys. (I.e., Analysis of objects developing, modification etc) and from here the objects are transported to the testing system, but before transporting an initial test known as Unit testing (testing of objects) is done in the development sys.

Testing/Quality system: quality check is done in this system and integration testing is done.

Production system: All the extraction part takes place in this sys.

Q. 35) How do you measure the size of infocube?

A: In no of records.

Q. 36). Difference between infocube and ODS?

A: Infocube is structured as star schema (extended) where a fact table is surrounded by different dim table that are linked with DIM'ids. And the data wise, you will have aggregated data in the cubes. No overwrite functionality ODS is a flat structure (flat table) with no star schema concept and which will have granular data (detailed level). Overwrite functionality.

Flat file datasources does not support 0recordmode in extraction.

x before, -after, n new, a add, d delete, r reverse

Q. 37) Difference between display attributes and navigational attributes?

A: Display attribute is one, which is used only for display purpose in the report. Where as navigational attribute is used for drilling down in the report. We don't need to maintain Navigational attribute in the cube as a characteristic (that is the advantage) to drill down.

A: But how is it possible? If you load it manually twice, then you can delete it by requestID.

Sure you can. ODS is nothing but a table.

A) Yes of course. For example, for loading text and hierarchies we use different data sources but the same InfoSource.

A) Data flows from transactional system to analytical system (BW). DataSources on the transactional system needs to be replicated on BW side and attached to infosource and update rules respectively.



Q. 44) AS WE USE Sbwnn, sbiw1, sbiw2 for delta update in LIS THEN WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE IN LO-COCKPIT?
No LIS in LO cockpit. We will have datasources and can be maintained (append fields). Refer white paper on LO-Cockpit extractions.

Q. 45) Why we delete the setup tables (LBWG) & fill them (OLI*BW)?

A) Initially we don't delete the setup tables but when we do change in extract structure we go for it. We r changing the extract structure right, that means there are some newly added fields in that which r not before. So to get the required data (i.e.; the data which is required is taken and to avoid redundancy) we delete n then fill the setup tables.

To refresh the statistical data. The extraction set up reads the dataset that you want to process such as, customers orders with the tables like VBAK, VBAP) & fills the relevant communication structure with the data. The data is stored in cluster tables from where it is read when the initialization is run. It is important that during initialization phase, no one generates or modifies
application data, at least until the tables can be set up.

It holds granular data (detailed level).

In PSA table.

The volume of data one data target holds (in no. of records)

Q. 48) Different types of INFOCUBES.
Basic, Virtual (remote, sap remote and multi)

Virtual Cube is used for example, if you consider railways reservation all the information has to be updated online. For designing the Virtual cube you have to write the function module that is linking to table, Virtual cube it is like a the structure, when ever the table is updated the virtual cube will fetch the data from table and display report Online... FYI.. you will get the information : and search for Designing Virtual Cube and you will get a good material designing the Function Module

Can be made of ODS's and Characteristic InfoObjects with masterdata.

In R/3 or in BW? 2 in R/3 and 2 in BW

Exist in the InfoObject, transfer routines, update routines and start routine

Rows and Columns, you can create structures.

Different Variable's are Texts, Formulas, Hierarchies, Hierarchy nodes & Characteristic values.

Variable Types are :
Manual entry /default value
Replacement path
SAP exit
Customer exit

You can drill down to any level by using Navigational attributes and jump targets.


Indexes are data base indexes, which help in retrieving data fastly.

Q. 56) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 2.1 AND 3.X VERSIONS. Help! Refer documentation


KPI's indicate the performance of a company. These are key figures

After image (correct me if I am wrong)

Q. 60) REPORTING AND RESTRICTIONS. Help! Refer documentation.

ST22, Number ranges, delete indexes before load. Etc

There should be some tool to run the job daily (SM37 jobs)

Profile generator

Q. 64) WEB REPORTING. What are you expecting? 

Of course

Q. 66) PROCEDURES OF REPORTING ON MULTICUBES Refer help. What are you expecting? MultiCube works on Union condition


Q. 68) What types of partitioning are there for BW?

There are two Partitioning Performance aspects for BW (Cube & PSA)
Query Data Retrieval Performance Improvement:
Partitioning by (say) Date Range improves data retrieval by making best use of database [data range] execution plans and indexes (of say Oracle database engine).
B) Transactional Load Partitioning Improvement:
Partitioning based on expected load volumes and data element sizes. Improves data loading into PSA and Cubes by infopackages (Eg. without timeouts).

Q. 69) How can I compare data in R/3 with data in a BW Cube after the daily delta loads? Are there any standard procedures for checking them or matching the number of records?

A) You can go to R/3 TCode RSA3 and run the extractor. It will give you the number of records extracted. Then go to BW Monitor to check the number of records in the PSA and check to see if it is the same & also in the monitor header tab.

A) RSA3 is a simple extractor checker program that allows you to rule out extracts problems in R/3. It is simple to use, but only really tells you if the extractor works. Since records that get updated into Cubes/ODS structures are controlled by Update Rules, you will not be able to determine what is in the Cube compared to what is in the R/3 environment. You will need to compare records on a 1:1 basis against records in R/3 transactions for the functional area in question. I would recommend enlisting the help of the end user community to assist since they presumably know the data.

To use RSA3, go to it and enter the extractor ex: 2LIS_02_HDR. Click execute and you will see the record count, you can also go to display that data. You are not modifying anything so what you do in RSA3 has no effect on data quality afterwards. However, it will not tell you how many records should be expected in BW for a given load. You have that information in the monitor RSMO during and after data loads. From RSMO for a given load you can determine how many records were passed through the transfer rules from R/3, how many targets were updated, and how many records passed through the Update Rules. It also gives you error messages from the PSA.

Q. 70) Types of Transfer Rules?

A) Field to Field mapping, Constant, Variable & routine.

Q. 71) Types of Update Rules?

A) (Check box), Return table

Q. 72) Transfer Routine?

A) Routines, which we write in, transfer rules.

Q. 73) Update Routine?

A) Routines, which we write in Update rules

Q. 74) What is the difference between writing a routine in transfer rules and writing a routine in update rules?

A) If you are using the same InfoSource to update data in more than one data target its better u write in transfer rules because u can assign one InfoSource to more than one data target & and what ever logic u write in update rules it is specific to particular one data target.

Q. 75) Routine with Return Table.

A) Update rules generally only have one return value. However, you can create a routine in the tab strip key figure calculation, by choosing checkbox Return table. The corresponding key figure routine then no longer has a return value, but a return table. You can then generate as many key figure values, as you like from one data record.

Q. 76) Start routines?

A) Start routines u can write in both updates rules and transfer rules, suppose you want to restrict (delete) some records based on conditions before getting loaded into data targets, then you can specify this in update rules-start routine.

Ex: - Delete Data_Package ani ante it will delete a record based on the condition

Q. 77) X & Y Tables?

X-table = A table to link material SIDs with SIDs for time-independent navigation attributes.

Y-table = A table to link material SIDs with SIDS for time-dependent navigation attributes.

There are four types of sid tables

X time independent navigational attributes sid tables

Y time dependent navigational attributes sid tables

H hierarchy sid tables

I hierarchy structure sid tables

Q. 78) Filters & Restricted Key figures (real time example)

Restricted KF's u can have for an SD cube: billed quantity, billing value, no: of billing documents as RKF's.

Q. 79) Line-Item Dimension (give me an real time example)
Line-Item Dimension: Invoice no: or Doc no: is a real time example

Q. 80) What does the number in the 'Total' column in Transaction RSA7 mean?

A) The 'Total' column displays the number of LUWs that were written in the delta queue and that have not yet been confirmed. The number includes the LUWs of the last delta request (for repetition of a delta request) and the LUWs for the next delta request. A LUW only disappears from the RSA7 display when it has been transferred to the BW System and a new delta request has been received from the BW System.

Q. 81) How to know in which table (SAP BW) contains Technical Name / Description and creation data of a particular Reports. Reports that are created using BEx Analyzer.

A) There is no such table in BW if you want to know such details while you are opening a particular query press properties button you will come to know all the details that you wanted.

You will find your information about technical names and description about queries in the following tables.
Directory of all reports (Table RSRREPDIR) and Directory of the reporting component elements (Table RSZELTDIR) for workbooks and the connections to queries check Where- used list for reports in workbooks (Table RSRWORKBOOK) Titles of Excel Workbooks in InfoCatalog (Table RSRWBINDEXT)

Q. 82) What is a LUW in the delta queue?

A) A LUW from the point of view of the delta queue can be an individual document, a group of documents from a collective run or a whole data packet of an application extractor.

Q. 83) Why does the number in the 'Total' column in the overview screen of Transaction RSA7 differ from the number of data records that is displayed when you call the detail view?

A) The number on the overview screen corresponds to the total of LUWs (see also first question) that were written to the qRFC queue and that have not yet been confirmed. The detail screen displays the records contained in the LUWs. Both, the records belonging to the previous delta request and the records that do not meet the selection conditions of the preceding delta init requests are filtered out. Thus, only the records that are ready for the next delta request are displayed on the detail screen. In the detail screen of Transaction RSA7, a possibly existing customer exit is not taken into account.

Q. 84) Why does Transaction RSA7 still display LUWs on the overview screen after successful delta loading?

A) Only when a new delta has been requested does the source system learn that the previous delta was successfully loaded to the BW System. Then, the LUWs of the previous delta may be confirmed (and also deleted). In the meantime, the LUWs must be kept for a possible delta request repetition. In particular, the number on the overview screen does not change when the first delta was loaded to the BW System.

Q. 85) Why are selections not taken into account when the delta queue is filled?

A) Filtering according to selections takes place when the system reads from the delta queue. This is necessary for reasons of performance.

Q. 86) Why is there a DataSource with '0' records in RSA7 if delta exists and has also been loaded successfully?

It is most likely that this is a DataSource that does not send delta data to the BW System via the delta queue but directly via the extractor (delta for master data using ALE change pointers). Such a DataSource should not be displayed in RSA7. This error is corrected with BW 2.0B Support Package 11.

Q. 87) Do the entries in table ROIDOCPRMS have an impact on the performance of the loading procedure from the delta queue?

A) The impact is limited. If performance problems are related to the loading process from the delta queue, then refer to the application-specific notes (for example in the CO-PA area, in the logistics cockpit area and so on).

Caution: As of Plug In 2000.2 patch 3 the entries in table ROIDOCPRMS are as effective for the delta queue as for a full update. Please note, however, that LUWs are not split during data loading for consistency reasons. This means that when very large LUWs are written to the DeltaQueue, the actual package size may differ considerably from the MAXSIZE and MAXLINES parameters.

Q. 88) Why does it take so long to display the data in the delta queue (for example approximately 2 hours)?

A) With Plug In 2001.1 the display was changed: the user has the option of defining the amount of data to be displayed, to restrict it, to selectively choose the number of a data record, to make a distinction between the 'actual' delta data and the data intended for repetition and so on.

Q. 89) What is the purpose of function 'Delete data and meta data in a queue' in RSA7? What exactly is deleted?

A) You should act with extreme caution when you use the deletion function in the delta queue. It is comparable to deleting an InitDelta in the BW System and should preferably be executed there. You do not only delete all data of this DataSource for the affected BW System, but also lose the entire information concerning the delta initialization. Then you can only request new deltas after another delta initialization.

When you delete the data, the LUWs kept in the qRFC queue for the corresponding target system are confirmed. Physical deletion only takes place in the qRFC outbound queue if there are no more references to the LUWs.

The deletion function is for example intended for a case where the BW System, from which the delta initialization was originally executed, no longer exists or can no longer be accessed.

Q. 90) Why does it take so long to delete from the delta queue (for example half a day)?

A) Import PlugIn 2000.2 patch 3. With this patch the performance during deletion is considerably improved.

Q. 91) Why is the delta queue not updated when you start the V3 update in the logistics cockpit area?

A) It is most likely that a delta initialization had not yet run or that the delta initialization was not successful. A successful delta initialization (the corresponding request must have QM status 'green' in the BW System) is a prerequisite for the application data being written in the delta queue.

Q. 92) What is the relationship between RSA7 and the qRFC monitor (Transaction SMQ1)?

A) The qRFC monitor basically displays the same data as RSA7. The internal queue name must be used for selection on the initial screen of the qRFC monitor. This is made up of the prefix 'BW, the client and the short name of the DataSource. For DataSources whose name are 19 characters long or shorter, the short name corresponds to the name of the DataSource. For DataSources whose name is longer than 19 characters (for delta-capable DataSources only possible as of PlugIn 2001.1) the short name is assigned in table ROOSSHORTN.

In the qRFC monitor you cannot distinguish between repeatable and new LUWs. Moreover, the data of a LUW is displayed in an unstructured manner there.

Q. 93) Why are the data in the delta queue although the V3 update was not started?

A) Data was posted in background. Then, the records are updated directly in the delta queue (RSA7). This happens in particular during automatic goods receipt posting (MRRS). There is no duplicate transfer of records to the BW system. See Note 417189.

Q. 94) Why does button 'Repeatable' on the RSA7 data details screen not only show data loaded into BW during the last delta but also data that were newly added, i.e. 'pure' delta records?

A) Was programmed in a way that the request in repeat mode fetches both actually repeatable (old) data and new data from the source system.

Q. 95) I loaded several delta inits with various selections. For which one is the delta loaded?

A) For delta, all selections made via delta inits are summed up. This means, a delta for the 'total' of all delta initializations is loaded.

Q. 96) How many selections for delta inits are possible in the system?

A) With simple selections (intervals without complicated join conditions or single values), you can make up to about 100 delta inits. It should not be more.

With complicated selection conditions, it should be only up to 10-20 delta inits.

Reason: With many selection conditions that are joined in a complicated way, too many 'where' lines are generated in the generated ABAP source code that may exceed the memory limit.

Q. 97) I intend to copy the source system, i.e. make a client copy. What will happen with may delta? Should I initialize again after that?

A) Before you copy a source client or source system, make sure that your deltas have been fetched from the DeltaQueue
into BW and that no delta is pending. After the client copy, an inconsistency might occur between BW delta tables and the OLTP delta tables as described in 405943. After the client copy, Table ROOSPRMSC will probably be empty in the OLTP since this table is client-independent.
After the system copy, the table will contain the entries with the old logical system name that are no longer useful for further delta loading from the new logical system. The delta must be initialized in any case since delta depends on both the BW system and the source system. Even if no dump 'MESSAGE_TYPE_X' occurs in BW when editing or creating an InfoPackage, you should expect that the delta have to be initialized after the copy.

Q. 98) Is it allowed in Transaction SMQ1 to use the functions for manual control of processes?

A) Use SMQ1 as an instrument for diagnosis and control only. Make changes to BW queues only after informing the BW Support or only if this is explicitly requested in a note for component 'BC-BW' or 'BW-WHM-SAPI'.

Q. 99) Despite of the delta request being started after completion of the collective run (V3 update), it does not contain all documents. Only another delta request loads the missing documents into BW. What is the cause for this "splitting"?

A) The collective run submits the open V2 documents for processing to the task handler, which processes them in one or several parallel update processes in an asynchronous way. For this reason, plan a sufficiently large "safety time window" between the end of the collective run in the source system and the start of the delta request in BW. An alternative solution where this problem does not occur is described in Note 505700.

Q. 100) Despite my deleting the delta init, LUWs are still written into the DeltaQueue?

A) In general, delta initializations and deletions of delta inits should always be carried out at a time when no posting takes place. Otherwise, buffer problems may occur:
If a user started the internal mode at a time when the delta initialization was still active, he/she posts data into the queue even though the initialization had been deleted in the meantime. This is the case in your system.

Q. 101) In SMQ1 (qRFC Monitor) I have status 'NOSEND'. In the table TRFCQOUT, some entries have the status 'READY', others 'RECORDED'. ARFCSSTATE is 'READ'. What do these statuses mean? Which values in the field 'Status' mean what and which values are correct and which are alarming? Are the statuses BW-specific or generally valid in qRFC?

A) Table TRFCQOUT and ARFCSSTATE: Status READ means that the record was read once either in a delta request or in a
repetition of the delta request. However, this does not mean that the record has successfully reached the BW yet. The status READY in the TRFCQOUT and RECORDED in the ARFCSSTATE means that the record has been written into the DeltaQueue and will be loaded into the BW with the next delta request or a repetition of a delta. In any case only the statuses READ, READY and RECORDED in both tables are considered to be valid. The status EXECUTED in TRFCQOUT can occur temporarily. It is set before starting a DeltaExtraction for all records with status READ present at that time. The records with status EXECUTED are usually deleted from the queue in packages within a delta request directly after setting the status before extracting a new delta. If you see such records, it means that either a process which is confirming and deleting records which have been loaded into the BW is successfully running at the moment, or, if the records remain in the table for a longer period of time with status EXECUTED, it is likely that there are problems with deleting the records which have already been successfully been loaded into the BW. In this state, no more deltas are loaded into the BW. Every other status is an indicator for an error or an inconsistency. NOSEND in SMQ1 means nothing (see 378903). The value 'U' in field 'NOSEND' of table TRFCQOUT is discomforting.

Q. 102) The extract structure was changed when the DeltaQueue was empty. Afterwards new delta records were written to the
DeltaQueue. When loading the delta into the PSA, it shows that some fields were moved. The same result occurs when the contents of the DeltaQueue are listed via the detail display. Why are the data displayed differently? What can be done?

Make sure that the change of the extract structure is also reflected in the database and that all servers are synchronized. We recommend to reset the buffers using Transaction $SYNC. If the extract structure change is not communicated synchronously to the server where delta records are being created, the records are written with the old structure until the new structure has been generated. This may have disastrous consequences for the delta. When the problem occurs, the delta needs to be re-initialized.

Q. 103) How and where can I control whether a repeat delta is requested?

A) Via the status of the last delta in the BW Request Monitor. If the request is RED, the next load will be of type 'Repeat'. If you need to repeat the last load for certain reasons, set the request in the monitor to red manually. For the contents of the repeat see Question 14. Delta requests set to red despite of data being already updated lead to duplicate records in a subsequent repeat, if they have not been deleted from the data targets concerned before.

Q. 104) As of PI 2003.1, the Logistic Cockpit offers various types of update methods. Which update method is recommended in logistics?

According to which criteria should the decision be made? How can I choose an update method in logistics?

See the recommendation in 505700.

Q. 105) Are there particular recommendations regarding the data volume the DeltaQueue may grow to without facing the danger of a read failure due to memory problems?

A) There is no strict limit (except for the restricted number range of the 24-digit QCOUNT counter in the LUW management table - which is of no practical importance, however - or the restrictions regarding the volume and number of records in a database table). When estimating "smooth" limits, both the number of LUWs is important and the average data volume per LUW. As a rule, we recommend to bundle data (usually documents) already when writing to the DeltaQueue to keep number of LUWs small (partly this can be set in the applications, e.g. in the Logistics Cockpit). The data volume of a single LUW should
not be considerably larger than 10% of the memory available to the work process for data extraction (in a 32-bit architecture with a memory volume of about 1GByte per work process, 100 Mbytes per LUW should not be exceeded). That limit is of rather small practical importance as well since a comparable limit already applies when writing to the DeltaQueue. If the limit is observed, correct reading is guaranteed in most cases.

If the number of LUWs cannot be reduced by bundling application transactions, you should at least make sure that the data are fetched from all connected BWs as quickly as possible. But for other, BW-specific, reasons, the frequency should not be higher than one DeltaRequest per hour.

To avoid memory problems, a program-internal limit ensures that never more than 1 million LUWs are read and fetched from the database per DeltaRequest. If this limit is reached within a request, the DeltaQueue must be emptied by several successive DeltaRequests. We recommend, however, to
try not to reach that limit but trigger the fetching of data from the connected BWs already when the number of LUWs reaches a 5-digit value.

Q. 106) I would like to display the date the data was uploaded on the report. Usually, we load the transactional data nightly. Is there any easy way to include this information on the report for users? So that they know the validity of the report.

A) If I understand your requirement correctly, you want to display the date on which data was loaded into the data target from which the report is being executed. If it is so, configure your workbook to display the text elements in the report. This displays the relevance of data field, which is the date on which the data load has taken place.

Q. 107) Can we filter the fields at Transfer Structure?

Q. 108) Can we load data directly into infoobject with out extraction is it possible.

Yes. We can copy from other infoobject if it is same. We load data from PSA if it is already in PSA.


a) We can set the time.


a) VPN…………….Virtual Private Network, VPN is nothing but one sort of network where we can connect to the client systems sitting in offshore through RAS (Remote access server).


Prepare Project Plan and Environment Define Project Management Standards and Procedures.
Define Implementation Standards and Procedures.
Testing & Go-live + supporting.


Go to TCode sm66 then see which one is locked select that pid from there and goto sm12 TCode then unlock it this is happened when lock errors are
occurred when u scheduled.

Q. 113) Can anybody tell me how to add a navigational attribute in the BEx report in the rows?

A) Expand dimension under left side panel (that is infocube panel) select than navigational attributes drag and drop under rows panel.


In current systems (BW 3.0B and R/3 4.6B) these Tcodes don't exist!


A) Transactional InfoCubes differ from standard InfoCubes in that the former have an improved write access performance level. Standard InfoCubes are technically optimized for read-only access and for a comparatively small number of simultaneous accesses. Instead, the transactional InfoCube was developed to meet the demands of SAP Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM), meaning that, data is written to the InfoCube (possibly by several users
at the same time) and re-read as soon as possible. Standard Basic cubes are not suitable for this.

Q. 116) Is there any way to delete cube contents within update rules from an ODS data source? The reason for this would be to delete (or zero out) a cube record in an "Open Order" cube if the open order quantity was 0. I've tried using the 0recordmode but that doesn't work. Also, would it be easier to write a program that would be run after the load and delete the records with a zero open qty?

A) START routine for update rules u can write ABAP code.

A) Yap, you can do it. Create a start routine in Update rule.

It is not "Deleting cube contents with update rules" It is only possible to avoid that some content is updated into the InfoCube using the start routine. Loop at all the records and delete the record that has the condition. "If the open order quantity was 0" You have to think also in before and after images in case of a delta upload. In that case you may delete the change record and keep the old and after the change the wrong information.

Q. 117) I am not able to access a node in hierarchy directly using variables for reports. When I am using Tcode RSZV it is giving a message that it doesn't exist in BW 3.0 and it is embedded in BEx. Can any one tell me the other options to get the same functionality in BEx?

A) Tcode RSZV is used in the earlier version of 3.0B only. From 3.0B onwards, it's possible in the Query Designer (BEx) itself. Just right click on the InfoObject for which you want to use as variables and precede further selecting variable type and processing types.

Q. 118) Wondering how can I get the values, for an example, if I run a report for month range 01/2004 - 10/2004 then monthly value is actually divide by the number of months that I selected. Which variable should I use?

Q. 119) Why is it every time I switch from Info Provider to InfoObject or from one item to another while in modeling I always get this message " Reading Data " or "constructing workbench" in it runs for minutes.... anyway to stop this?

Q. 120) Can any one give me info on how the BW delta works also would like to know about 'before image and after image' am currently in a BW project and have to write start routines for delta load.

Q. 121) I am very new to BW. I would like to clarify a doubt regarding Delta extractor. If I am correct, by using delta extractors the data that has already been scheduled will not be uploaded again. Say for a specific scenario, Sales. Now I have uploaded all the sales order created till yesterday into the cube. Now say I make changes to any of the open record, which was already uploaded. Now what happens when I schedule it again? Will the same record be uploaded again with the changes or will the changes get affected to the previous record.

Q. 122) In BW we need to write abap routines. I wish to know when and what type of abap routines we got to write. Also, are these routines written in update rules? I will be glad, if this is clarified with real-time scenarios and few examples?

A) Over here we write our routines in the start routines in the update rules or in the transfer structure (you can choose between writing them in the start routines or directly behind the different characteristics. In the transfer structure you just click on the yellow triangle behind a characteristic and choose "routine". In the update rules you can choose "start routine" or click on the triangle with the green square behind an individual characteristic. Usually we only use start routine when it does not concern one single characteristic (for example when you have to read the same table for 4 characteristics). I hope this helps.

We used ABAP Routines for example:
To convert to Uppercase (transfer structure)
To convert Values out of a third party tool with different keys into the same keys as our SAP System uses (transfer structure)
To select only a part of the data for from an infosource updating the InfoCube (Start Routine) etc.

Q. 123) What is ODS?

A) An ODS object acts as a storage location for consolidated and cleaned-up transaction data (transaction data or master data, for example) on the document (atomic) level.

This data can be evaluated using a BEx query.

Standard ODS Object

Transactional ODS object:

The data is immediately available here for reporting. For implementation, compare with the Transactional ODS Object.

A transactional ODS object differs from a standard ODS object in the way it prepares data. In a standard ODS object, data is stored in different versions ((new) delta, active, (change log) modified), where as a transactional ODS object contains the data in a single version. Therefore, data is stored in precisely the same form in which it was written to the transactional ODS object by the application. In BW, you can use a transaction ODS object as a data target for an analysis process.

The transactional ODS object is also required by diverse applications, such as SAP Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM) for example, as well as other external applications.

Transactional ODS objects allow data to be available quickly. The data from this kind of ODS object is accessed transactionally, that is, data is written to the ODS object (possibly by several users at the same time) and reread as soon as possible.

It offers no replacement for the standard ODS object. Instead, an additional function displays those that can be used for special applications.

The transactional ODS object simply consists of a table for active data. It retrieves its data from external systems via fill- or delete- APIs. The loading process is not supported by the BW system. The advantage to the way it is structured is that data is easy to access. They are made available for reporting immediately after being loaded.

Q. 124) What does InfoCube contains?

A) Each InfoCube has one FactTable & a maximum of 16 (13+3 system defined, time, unit & data packet) dimensions.

Q. 125) What does FACT Table contain?

A) FactTable consists of KeyFigures.

Each Fact Table can contain a maximum of 233 key figures.

Dimension can contain up to 248 freely available characteristics.

Q. 126) How many dimensions are in a CUBE?

A) 16 dimensions. (13 user defined & 3 system pre-defined [time, unit & data packet])

Q. 127) What does SID Table contain?

SID keys linked with dimension table & master data tables (attributes, texts, hierarchies)

Q. 128) What does ATTRIBUTE Table contain?

Master attribute data

Q. 129) What does TEXT Table contain?

Master text data, short text, long text, medium text & language key if it is language dependent

Q. 130) What does Hierarchy table contain?

Master hierarchy data

Q. 131) What is the advantage of extended STAR Schema?

Q. 132) Differences between STAR Schema & Extended Schema?

A) In STAR SCHEMA, A FACT Table in center, surrounded by dimensional tables and the dimension tables contains of master data. In Extended Schema the dimension tables does not contain master data, instead they are stored in Masterdata tables divided into attributes, text & hierarchy. These Masterdata & dimensional tables are linked with each other with SID keys. Masterdata tables are independent of Infocube & reusability in other InfoCubes.

Q. 133) As to where in BW do you go to add a character like a ; # so that BW will accept it. This is transaction data which loads fine in the PSA but not the data target.

A) Check transaction SPRO ---Then click the "Goggles"-Button => Business  Information Warehouse => Global Settings => 2nd point in the list. I hope you can use my "Guide" (my BW is in german, so i don't know all the english descriptions).

Q. 134) Does data packets exits even if you don't enter the master data, (when created)?

Q. 135) When are Dimension ID's created?

A) When Transaction data is loaded into InfoCube.

Q. 136) When are SID's generated?

A) When Master data loaded into Master Tables (Attr, Text, Hierarchies).

Q. 137) How would we delete the data in ODS?

A) By request IDs, Selective deletion & change log entry deletion.

Q. 138) How would we delete the data in change log table of ODS?

A) Context menu of ODS → Manage → Environment → change log entries.

Q. 139) What are the extra fields does PSA contain?

A) (4) Record id, Data packet …

Q. 140) Partitioning possible for ODS?

A) No, It's possible only for Cube.

Q. 141) Why partitioning?

A) For performance tuning.

Q. 142) Have you ever tried to load data from 2 InfoPackages into one cube?

A) Yes.

Q. 143) Different types of Attributes?

A) Navigational attribute, Display attributes, Time dependent attributes, Compounding attributes, Transitive attributes, Currency attributes.

Q. 144) Transitive Attributes?

A) Navigational attributes having nav attr…these nav attrs are called transitive attrs

Q. 145) Navigational attribute?

A) Are used for drill down reporting (RRI).

Q. 146) Display attributes?

A) You can show DISPLAY attributes in a report, which are used only for displaying.

Q. 147) How does you recognize an attribute whether it is a display attribute or not?

A) In Edit characteristics of char, on general tab checked as attribute only.

Q. 148) Compounding attribute?

Q. 149) Time dependent attributes?

Q. 150) Currency attributes?

Q. 151) Authorization relevant object. Why authorization needed?

Q. 152) How do we convert Master data InfoObject to a Data target?

A) InfoArea → Infoprovider (context menu) → Insert characteristic Data as DataTarget.

Q. 153) How do we load the data if a FlatFile consists of both Master and Transaction data?
A) Using Flexible update method while creating InfoSource.

Q. 154) Steps in LIS are Extraction?

Q. 155) Steps in LO are Extraction?

A) * Maintain extract structures. (R/3)

* Maintain DataSources. (R/3)

* Replicate DataSource in BW.

* Assign InfoSources.

* Maintain communication structures/transfer rules.

* Maintain InfoCubes & Update rules.

* Activate extract structures. (R/3)

* Delete setup tables/setup extraction. (R/3)

* InfoPackage for the Delta initialization.

* Set-up periodic V3 update. (R/3)

* InfoPackage for Delta uploads.

Q. 156) Steps in FlatFile Extraction?

Q. 157) Different types in LO's?

A) Direct Delta, Queued Delta, Serialized V3 update, Unserialized V3 Update.

Direct Delta: - With every document posted in R/3, the extraction data is transferred directly into the BW delta queue. Each document posting with delta extraction becomes exactly one LUW in the corresponding Delta queue.

Queued Delta: - The extraction data from the application is collected in extraction queue instead of as update data and can be transferred to the BW delta queue by an update collection run, as in the V3 update.

Q. 158) What does LO Cockpit contain?

A) * Maintaining Extract structure.

* Maintaining DataSources.

* Activating Updates.

* Controlling Updates.

Q. 159) RSA6 --- Maintain DataSources.

Q. 160) RSA7 ---- Delta Queue (allows you to monitor the current status of the delta attribute)

Q. 161) RSA3 ---- Extract checker.

Q. 162) LBW0 --- TCode for LIS.

Q. 163) LBWG --- Delete set-up tables in LO's.

Q. 164) OLI*BW --- Fill Set-up tables.

Q. 165) LBWE ---- TCode for Logistics extractors.

Q. 166) RSO2 --- Maintaining Generic DataSources.

Q. 167) MC21 ----- Creating user-defined Information Structure for LIS (It is InfoSource in SAP BW).

Q. 168) MC24 ---- Creating Updating rules for LO's.

Q. 169) PFCG ---- Role maintenance, assign users to these roles.

Q. 170) SE03 -- Changeability of the BW namespace.

Q. 171) RSDCUBEM --- For Delete, Change or Delete the InfoCube.

Q. 172) RSD5 -- Data packet characteristics maint.

Q. 173) RSDBC - DB Connect

Q. 174) RSMO --- Monitoring of Dataloads.

Q. 175) RSCUSTV6 -- Partitioning of PSA.

Q. 176) RSRT -- Query monitor.

Q. 177) RSRV - Analysis and Repair of BW Objects

Q. 178) RRMX - BEx Analyzer

Q. 179) RSBBS - Report to Report interface (RRI).

Q. 180) SPRO -- IMG (To make configurations in BW).

Q. 181) RSDDV - Maintaining Aggregates.

Q. 182) RSKC -- Character permit checker.

Q. 183) ST22 - Checking ShortDump.

Q. 184) SM37 - Scheduling Background jobs.

Q. 185) RSBOH1 -- Open Hub Service: Create InfoSpoke.

Q. 186) RSMONMESS -- "Messages for the monitor" table.

Q. 187) ROOSOURCE - Table to find out delta update methods.

Q. 188) RODELTAM - Finding for modes of records (i.e. before image & after image)

Q. 189) SMOD - Definition

Q. 190) CMOD - Project Management enhancing

Q. 191) SPAU - Program Compare

Q. 192) SE11 - ABAP Dictionary

Q. 193) SE09 - Transport Organizer (workbench organizer)

Q. 194) SE10 - Transport Organizer (Extended View)

Q. 195) SBIW - Implementation guide 

Q. 196) Statistical Update?

Q. 197) What are Process Chains?

A) TCode is RSPC, is a sequence of processes scheduled in the background & waiting to be triggered by a specific event. Process chains nothing but grouping processes. Process variant (start variant) is the place the process chain knows where to start.

There should be min and max one start variant in each process chain, here we specify when should the process chain start by giving date and time or if you want to start immediately

Some of theses processes trigger an event of their own that in-turn triggers other processes.

Ex: - Start chain → Delete BCube indexes → Load data from the source system to PSA → Load data from PSA to DataTarget ODS → Load data from ODS to BCube → Create Indexes for BCube after loading data → Create database statistics → Roll-Up data into the aggregate → Restart chain from beginning.

Q. 198) What are Process Types & Process variant?

A) Process types are General services, Load Process & subsequent processing, Data Target Administration, Reporting agent & Other BW services. Process variant (start variant) is the place the process type knows when & where to start.

Q. 199) Difference between MasterData & Transaction InfoPackage?

A) 5 tabs in Masterdata & 6 tabs in Transaction data, the extra tab in Transaction data is DATA TARGETS.

Q. 200) Types of Updates?

A) Full Update, Init Delta Update & Delta Update.

Q. 201) For Full update possible while loading data from R/3?

A) InfoPackage → Scheduler → Repair Request flag (check).

This is only possible when we use MM & SD modules.

Q. 202) InfoPackage groups?

Q. 203) Explain the status of records in Active & change log tables in ODS when modified in source system?

Q. 204) Why it takes more time while loading the transaction data even to load the transaction without master data (we check the checkbox, Always Update data, even if no master data exits for the data)?

A) Because while loading the data it has to create SID keys for transaction data.

Q. 205) For what we use HIDE fields, SELECT fields & CANCELLATION fields?

A) Selection fields-- The only purpose is when we check this column, the field will appear in InfoPackage Data selection tab.

Hide fields -- These fields are not transferred to BW transfer structure.

Cancellation - It will reverse the posted documents of keyfigures of customer defined by multiplying it with -1...and nullifying the value. I think this is reverse posting

Q. 206) Transporting.

A) When it comes to transporting for R/3 and BW, u should always transport all the R/3 Objects first………once you transport all the R/3 objects to the 2nd system, you have to replicate the datasources into the 2nd BW system…and then transport BW objects.

First you will transport all the datasources from 1st R/3 system to 2nd R/3 System. Second, you will replicate the datasources from 2nd R/3 system into 2nd BW system. Third, you will transport all the BW Objects from 1st BW system to 2nd BW system.

You have to send your extractors first to the corresponding R/3 Q Box and replicate that to BW. Then you have to do this transport in BW.

Development, testing and then production

Q. 207) Functionality of InitDelta & Delta Updates?

Q. 208) What is Change-run ID?

Q. 209) Currency conversions?

Q. 210) Difference between Calculated KeyFigure & Formula?

Q. 211) When does a transfer structure contain more fields than the communication structure of an InfoSource?

A) If we use a routine to enhance a field in the communication from several fields in the transfer structure, the communication structure may contain more fields.

A) The total no of InfoObjects in the communication structure & Extract structure may be different, since InfoObjects can be copied to the communication structure from all the extract structures.

Q. 212) What is the PSA, technical name of PSA, Uses?

A) When we want to delete the data in InfoProvider & again want to re-load the data, at this stage we can directly load from PSA not going to extract from R/3.

A) For cleansing purpose.

Q. 213) Variables in Reporting?

A) Characteristics values, Text, Hierarchies, Hierarchy nodes & Formula elements,

Q. 214) Variable processing types in Reporting?

A) Manual, Replacement path, SAP Exit, Authorizations, Customer Exit

Q. 215) Why we use this RSRP0001 Enhancement?

A) For enhancing the Customer Exit in reporting.

Q. 216) What is the use of Filters?

A) It Restricts Data.

Q. 217) What is the use of Conditioning?

A) To retrieve data based on particular conditions like less than, greater than, less than or equal etc.,

Q. 218) Difference between Filters & Conditioning?

Q. 219) What is NODIM?

A) For example it converts 5lts + 5kgs = 10.

Q. 220) What for Exception's? How can I get PINK color?

A) To differentiate values with colors, by adding relevant colors u can get pink.

Q. 221) Why SAPLRSAP is used?

A) We use these function modules for enhancing in r/3.

Q. 222) What are workbooks & uses?

Q. 223) Where are workbooks saved?

A) Workbooks are saved in favorites.

Q. 224) Can Favorites accessed by other users?

A) No, they need authorization.

Q. 225) What is InfoSet?

A) An InfoSet is a special view of a dataset, such as logical database, table join, table, and sequential file, and is used by SAP Query as a source data. InfoSets determine the tables or fields in these tables that can be referenced by a report. In most cases, InfoSets are based on logical databases.

SAP Query includes a component for maintaining InfoSets. When you create an InfoSet, a DataSource in an application system is selected.

Navigating in a BW to an InfoSet Query, using one or more ODS objects or InfoObjects.

You can also drill-through to BEx queries and InfoSet Queries from a second BW system, that is Connected as a data mart.

_The InfoSet Query functions allow you to report using flat data tables (master data reporting).

Choose InfoObjects or ODS objects as data sources. These can be connected using joins.

__You define the data sources in an InfoSet. An InfoSet can contain data from one or more tables that are connected to one another by key fields.

__The data sources specified in the InfoSet form the basis of the InfoSet Query.

Q. 226) LO's?

A) Synchronous update (V1 update)

Statistics update is carried out at the same time as the document update in the same task.

• Asynchronous update (V2 update)

Document update and the statistics update take place separately in different tasks.

• Collective update (V3 update)

Again, document update is separate from the statistics update. However, in contrast to the V2 update, the V3 collective statistics update must be scheduled as a job.

Successfully scheduling the update will ensure that all the necessary information

Structures are properly updated when new or existing documents are processed.

Scheduling intervals should be based on the amount of activity on a particular OLTP system. For example, a development system with a relatively low or no volume of new documents may only need to run the V3 update on a weekly basis. A full production environment, with hundreds of transactions per hour may have to be updated every 15 to 30 minutes.

SAP standard background job scheduling functionality may be used in order to schedule the V3 updates successfully. It is possible to verify that all V3 updates are successfully completed via transaction SM13. This transaction will take you to the “UPDATE RECORDS: MAIN MENU” screen. At this screen, enter asterisk as your user (for all users), flag the radio button 'All' and hit enter. Any outstanding V3 updates will be listed. While a non-executed V3 update will not hinder your OLTP system, by administering the V3 update jobs properly, your information structures will be current and overall performance will be improved.