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SAP BC 400
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SAP BC 400

BC400 ABAP Workbench Concepts and Tools.................................................. 1

Copyright................................................................................................................ 2

ABAP Workbench............................................................................................ 3

ITS....................................................................................................................... 4

Prerequisites....................................................................................................... 5

Target Group..................................................................................................... 6

ABAP Workbench Foundations and Concepts: Contents.......................................... 1

Course Goal....................................................................................................... 2

Course Objectives............................................................................................. 3

Course Content................................................................................................. 4

Course Content................................................................................................. 5

Main Business Scenario.................................................................................. 6

Important Database Tables for the Flight Data Model............................................. 7

Program Flow in an ABAP Program.................................................................. 1

Overview............................................................................................................ 2

Client / Server Architecture............................................................................. 3

User-Oriented View........................................................................................... 4

Program Flow: What the User Sees............................................................... 5

Interaction Between Server Layers............................................................... 6

Overview............................................................................................................ 7

Sample Program 1: Program Start................................................................. 8

System Loads Program Context.................................................................... 9

Runtime System Sends Selection Screen................................................... 10

Selection Screen Entries Inserted into Data Objects.......................................... 11

Program Requests Data Record from Database.................................................. 12

Database Returns Data Record to Program....................................................... 13

Runtime System Sends List.......................................................................... 14

Overview.......................................................................................................... 15

Sample Program 2: Program Start.............................................................. 16

ABAP Runtime System sends Screen......................................................... 17

User Leaves Selection Screen....................................................................... 18

Program Requests Data Record from Database............................................. 19

Database Returns Data Record................................................................... 20

Program Calls Screen..................................................................................... 21

ABAP Runtime System Sends Selection Screen.............................................. 22

User Executes User Action............................................................................ 23

Processing of the ABAP Processing Block Resumes........................................ 24

Overview.......................................................................................................... 25

Course Content............................................................................................... 26

Course Content............................................................................................... 27

Introduction to the ABAP Workbench.............................................................. 1

Introduction to the ABAP Workbench......................................................... 2

Overview: Introduction to the ABAP Workbench................................................. 3

R/3 Repository.................................................................................................. 4

Repository Structure........................................................................................ 5

SAP Application Hierarchy............................................................................. 6

Repository Information System.................................................................... 7

ABAP Workbench Tools................................................................................. 8

Screen Structure in the Object Navigator..................................................... 9

Navigation Functions in the Navigation Area................................................. 10

Navigation in the Tool Area......................................................................... 11

Synchronizing the Navigation Area and the Tool Area.......................................... 12

Analyzing an Existing Program................................................................... 13

Determining the Functional Scope: Executing a Program................................. 14

Executing a Program Using a Transaction Code.............................................. 15

Determining Screen Numbers and Field Names........................................... 16

Static Analysis: Object list............................................................................ 17

Static Analysis in the Object Navigator..................................................... 18

Example: Displaying Screen 100 in the Screen Painter......................................... 19

Dynamic analysis: Debugging mode.......................................................... 20

Starting a Program in Debugging Mode..................................................... 21

Switch to Debugging Mode at Runtime..................................................... 22

Investigating the Behavior of ABAP Programs at Runtime: Breakpoints in the Debugging Mode.................. 23

Breakpoints in the Debugging Mode.......................................................... 24

Analyzing the Source Code.......................................................................... 25

General ABAP Syntax: Key Words............................................................ 26

Keyword Documentation in the Editor...................................................... 27

Navigation in the Editor: Double-Clicking....................................................... 28

Comments....................................................................................................... 29

Analyzing the Sample Program Source Code................................................... 30

Data Objects and Selection Screens........................................................... 31

Requesting a Data Record from the Database......................................... 32

Receiving the Results of a Query................................................................ 33

Processing Screens.......................................................................................... 34

Creating Lists in ABAP.................................................................................. 35

Overview: Introduction to the ABAP Workbench................................................. 36

Objective of the First Project........................................................................ 37

Project Organization in the ABAP Workbench............................................... 38

Transporting Repository Objects................................................................. 39

Sample Project: Training BC400................................................................ 40

Project Representation in the Workbench Organizer...................................... 41

Completing the Development Process........................................................ 42

Performing Adjustments............................................................................... 43

Copying Programs.......................................................................................... 44

Saving Programs............................................................................................. 45

Allocation to a Change Request.................................................................. 46

Adjusting Short Texts.................................................................................... 47

Adapting Source Code  .................................................................... .......  48

Making Changes to Screens......................................................................... 49

Activating Program Objects......................................................................... 50

Inactive and Active Development Objects................................................... 51

Generation of Runtime Objects................................................................... 52

Saving and Activating................................................................................... 53

Creating a New Program............................................................................... 54

Creating a Program........................................................................................ 55

Creating a Transaction Code....................................................................... 56

Including a Transaction Code in SAP Easy Access............................................... 57

Introduction to the ABAP Workbench: Unit Summary....................................... 58

ABAP Workbench Exercises........................................................................ 59

ABAP Workbench Solutions........................................................................ 63

ABAP Statements and Data Declarations........................................................ 1

ABAP Statements and Data Declarations: Unit Objectives................................ 2

Main Focus of Unit: Data Objects in Programs................................................... 3

Overview: Types............................................................................................... 4

Using Types....................................................................................................... 5

Attributes of Global and Local Program Types................................................ 6

Global types in the ABAP Dictionary........................................................... 7

Example: Using Semantic Information from the Dictionary........................................ 8

Finding out About ABAP Dictionary Types 1........................................................... 9

Finding ABAP Dictionary Types in the Repository Information System..................... 10

Local Data Types in Programs.................................................................... 11

Overview: Data objects................................................................................. 12

Defining Data Objects................................................................................... 13

Overview: Elementary Data Objects.......................................................... 14

Syntax Example: Defining Elementary Data Objects................................. 15

Fixed Data Objects........................................................................................ 16

Copying and Initializing Variables.............................................................. 17

Performing Calculations............................................................................... 18

Evaluating Field Contents............................................................................ 19

Tracing Data Flow in the Debugger: Field View........................................... 20

Tracing Data Flow in the Debugger: Watchpoint....................................... 21

Overview: Structures...................................................................................... 22

Defining Structures with a Dictionary Type Reference............................................. 23

Example: Dictionary Structure Type SBC400FOCC............................................... 24

Syntax Example: Local Program Structure Types............................................ 25

Addressing Fields in Structures..................................................................... 26

Copying Identically-Named Fields Between Structures...................................... 27

Structures in the Debugger............................................................................ 28

Data Objects in a Program's Object List and in the Where-Used List................... 29

Overview: Internal Tables............................................................................ 30

Internal Tables................................................................................................ 31

Attributes of Internal Tables........................................................................ 32

The Relationship Between the Table Kind and the Access Type........................ 33

Declaring Internal Tables with a Dictionary Type Reference.............................. 34

Syntax Example: Local Table Types in Programs.................................... 35

Overview: Accessing Single Records........................................................... 36

Overview: Processing Sets of Records........................................................ 37

Example: Filling Internal Tables Line by Line.............................................. 38

Example: Reading Internal Table Contents Using a Loop........................... 39

Example: Reading Internal Tables Using the Index....................................... 40

Example: Reading Internal Tables Using Keys................................................ 41

Operations on the Whole Internal Table.................................................... 42

Syntax Example: Sorting a Standard Table..................................................... 43

Internal Tables in Debugging Mode............................................................ 44

Internal Tables with Headers....................................................................... 45

Overview: ABAP Statement Attributes...................................................... 46

ABAP Statement Return Codes.................................................................. 47

Standard Dialogs for Messages................................................................... 48

Syntax Example: MESSAGE Statements.......................................................... 49

The Dialog Behavior of Messages: Message Types.............................................. 50

Runtime Behavior of Messages.................................................................. 51

ABAP Statements and Data Declarations: Unit Summary.................................. 52

Data Objects and Statements Exercises.................................................... 53

Data Objects and Statements Solutions.................................................... 58

Reading Database Tables.................................................................................... 1

Reading Database Tables: Unit Objectives.................................................... 2

Information on Database Tables in R/3...................................................... 3

Flight Data Model for ABAP Training Courses................................................. 4

Data Model........................................................................................................ 5

Implementation in the Database Using the ABAP Dictionary............................ 6

Maintenance Tool: ABAP Dictionary.......................................................... 7

Finding Fields, Key Fields, and Secondary Indexes in the ABAP Dictionary..................... 8

Finding Database Tables................................................................................. 9

Reading Database Tables............................................................................. 10

Querying the Database.................................................................................. 11

SELECT Overview......................................................................................... 12

Reading a Single Record............................................................................... 13

Reading Several Records Using a SELECT Loop................................................. 14

Reading Several Records Using an Array Fetch........................................................ 15

The Field List and Appropriate Target Structure: The INTO Clause........................ 16

Target Structures with Identically-Named Fields for All Columns Specified.................... 17

Authorization Checks.................................................................................... 18

Authorization Checks in ABAP Programs.................................................. 19

Authorization Objects and Authorizations............................................. 20

AUTHORITY-CHECK................................................................................. 21

Inserting AUTHORITY-CHECK in Programs..................................................... 22

Outlook: Reading Multiple Database Tables.......................................................... 23

Reading Multiple Database Tables............................................................. 24

ABAP Join and Dictionary Views................................................................ 25

Reference Model............................................................................................ 26

Overview: Available Reuse Techniques..................................................... 27

Reading Database Tables: Unit Summary........................................................... 28

Database Dialogs 1: Exercises..................................................................... 29

Database Dialogs 1: Solutions..................................................................... 34

Internal Program Modularization...................................................................... 1

Internal Program Modularization: Unit Objectives.............................................. 2

Possible Elements in an ABAP Program....................................................... 3

Event Blocks..................................................................................................... 4

Example: ABAP Program with Event Blocks and a Selection Screen.......................... 5

Sample Program Runtime Behavior............................................................. 6

Event Blocks in Executable Programs.......................................................... 7

Syntax: Event Blocks...................................................................................... 8

Subroutines........................................................................................................ 9

Example: Flow Chart.................................................................................... 10

Concept: Encapsulating Output in a Subroutine......................................................... 11

Calling Subroutines........................................................................................ 12

Syntax Example: Calling the Subroutine.................................................. 13

Implementation: Generic Subroutine to Display the First n Lines of an Internal Table............... 14

Syntax: Generic Subroutine to Display the First n Lines of an Internal Table............................. 15

Generating a Call Using Drag&Drop........................................................... 16

Subroutines in the Debugging Mode........................................................... 17

Subroutines That Return Data..................................................................... 18

Syntax Example: Subroutines with USING and CHANGING Parameters.............................. 19

Copying Large Internal Tables.................................................................... 20

Solution: Reference Parameters.................................................................. 21

Syntax Example: Subroutine with Interface Reference Parameters....................................... 22

Internal Program Modularization: Unit Summary................................................................. 23

Modularization in Programs Exercises....................................................... 24

Internal Program Modularization Solutions.................................................................... 26

User Dialogs: Lists................................................................................................. 1

User Dialogs: Lists: Unit Objectives.............................................................. 2

List Attributes.................................................................................................... 3

Standard List Functions.................................................................................. 4

Column Header in the Default Page Header............................................................. 5

Multilingual Capability.................................................................................... 6

Lists in Executable Programs......................................................................... 7

Detail Lists......................................................................................................... 8

Example: A Simple Detail List....................................................................... 9

Syntax: A Simple Detail List........................................................................ 10

Example: Detail lists...................................................................................... 11

Placing Global Data in the HIDE Area....................................................... 12

Line Selection.................................................................................................. 13

Line Selection: Syntax.................................................................................. 14

User Dialogs: Lists: Unit Summary............................................................. 15

User Dialogs – Lists: Exercises..................................................................... 16

User Dialogs – Lists Benutzerdialog Liste: Solutions.......................................... 18

User Dialogs: Selection Screens.......................................................................... 1

Selection Screens: Unit Objectives................................................................ 2

Use of Selection Screens.................................................................................. 3

Screen Attributes............................................................................................... 4

The Selection Screen........................................................................................ 5

Entering Selections........................................................................................... 6

Using the Semantic Information of Dictionary Types...................................... 7

Selection Texts.................................................................................................. 8

Variants.............................................................................................................. 9

Single Fields (PARAMETERS)..................................................................... 10

Effect of the PARAMETERS Statement................................................... 11

Runtime Behavior and Data Transport (1).......................................................... 12

Using Parameters When You Access the Database............................................. 13

Value Sets (SELECT-OPTIONS)................................................................. 14

Effect of SELECT-OPTIONS...................................................................... 15

Runtime Behavior and Data Transport (2)........................................................... 16

Using Value Sets When You Access the Database.............................................. 17

Selection screen events.................................................................................. 18

Selection Screen Events................................................................................ 19

Error Messages in AT SELECTION-SCREEN...................................................... 20

Syntax Example for AT SELECTION-SCREEN..................................... 21

Selection Screens: Unit Summary............................................................... 22

Selection Screen: Exercises........................................................................... 23

Selection Screen Solutions............................................................................ 24

User Dialogs: Screens............................................................................................ 1

Screens: Unit Objectives.................................................................................. 2

Selection Screen Attributes............................................................................. 3

Options for Calling Screens............................................................................. 4

Objective of the Example Program............................................................... 5

Parts of a Screen............................................................................................... 6

Editing Screens.................................................................................................. 7

The Editing Window in the Graphical Layout Editor............................................. 8

Example, Step 1: Creating a Screen.............................................................. 9

Creating a Screen: Screen Attributes.......................................................... 10

Input Fields with Reference to Fields of a Dictionary Structure...................................... 11

Changing the Element Attributes of a Field: The Attribute Window................................ 12

Example, Step 2: Displaying Data.............................................................. 13

Screen Interfaces............................................................................................ 14

Data Transport from the Program to the Screen................................................... 15

Data Transport from the Screen to the Program................................................... 16

Data Transport in the Example Program................................................... 17

Data Availability............................................................................................ 18

Syntax: Example Program with Data Transport............................................... 19

Example, Step 3: Defining Pushbuttons.................................................... 20

Runtime Behavior When User Chooses a Pushbutton.............................................. 21

Defining Pushbuttons / Assigning Function Codes.......................................... 22

Making the Command Field Usable........................................................... 23

Modules........................................................................................................... 24

The user_command_<nnnn> PAI Module................................................................... 25

Creating Modules Using Forward Navigation................................................................. 26

Next Screen (Set Statically) = 0................................................................... 27

Next Screen (Set Statically) = Screen Number......................................................... 28

Setting the Next Screen Dynamically......................................................... 29

Syntax Example: The user_command_100 Module................................................................ 30

Exceptional Runtime Behavior  When ENTER Is not Assigned to a Function Code................. 31

Possible Solution: Deleting the Command Field in a PBO Module...................................... 32

Screens: Unit Summary................................................................................ 33

Screens: Exercises.......................................................................................... 34

Screens Solutions............................................................................................ 39

Interfaces................................................................................................................ 1

Interfaces: Unit Objectives............................................................................. 2

Overview of Screen Objects............................................................................ 3

Evaluating Functions After User Actions..................................................... 4

Functions in ABAP Programs......................................................................... 5

Status: Functions in Screens........................................................................... 6

Runtime Behavior: Setting a Status before Displaying a Screen..................................... 7

Creating GUI Statuses for Lists...................................................................... 8

Adjusting Statuses............................................................................................ 9

Statuses in the Menu Painter: Key Settings............................................................... 10

Statuses in the Menu Painter: The Menu Bar.............................................................. 11

Technical View of  Basic Interface Elements............................................................... 12

Objective: Example Program Interface..................................................... 13

Creating GUI Statuses for a Screen............................................................ 14

Including Existing Elements......................................................................... 15

Technical View of an Interface with Two Statuses.................................................................. 16

Each Status References Functions (Indirectly)...................................................................... 17

Each Referenced Function Has the Attribute Active or Inactive in the Status......................... 18

Setting Functions to Active or Inactive in the Status............................................................. 19

Adding an Additional Function Subsequently................................................................ 20

Outlook: Title.................................................................................................. 21

Creating GUI Titles for a Screen.................................................................. 22

Interfaces: Unit Summary............................................................................ 23

Interfaces Exercises....................................................................................... 24

InterfacesSolutions........................................................................................ 26

Reuse Components............................................................................................... 1

Reuse Components: Unit Objectives............................................................ 2

Techniques for Encapsulating Business Logic................................................. 3

Overview: Function Groups and Function Modules................................................ 4

Function Groups and Function Modules: Course Objectives................................... 5

Function Groups............................................................................................... 6

Function Modules............................................................................................. 7

Function Groups:  Data Flow......................................................................... 8

Example: The Cancel Dialog Box................................................................. 9

Requirement: Function Module for Standard Dialog......................................... 10

Finding the Function Module....................................................................... 11

Function Module Interface.......................................................................... 12

Documentation and Testing......................................................................... 13

Syntax: Calling the Function Module........................................................ 14

Reuse Components: Exercises..................................................................... 44

Reuse Components: Solutions..................................................................... 48

Developing Internet Applications: Exercises....................................................... 22

Developing Internet Applications: Solutions  ................................................  24


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