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ABAP Basics - Julia Kirchner 1 Edition

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ABAP Basics - Julia Kirchner 1 Edition
Stechies

No other programming language has experienced the kind of checkered history that ABAP has had over the past 30 years. From its conception to the advent of SAP R/3, ABAP was designed solely for the creation of reports, like a listing of all liabilities to customers or a company balance sheet at the end of a fiscal year. ABAP programs could read data in the database and output it to the screen in tablebased texts, or lists. Customers who use SAP software could modifythe ABAP source code of these reports or design new reports to meet their needs. At that time (SAP R/2), programs with write access to the database had to be programmed in Assembler (directly in the machine language). You can imagine the complexity and effort involved, and you can certainly understand that the task was reserved solely for SAP itself. With the introduction of SAP R/3 at the beginning of the 1990s, the ABAP programming language had expanded to the point whereby it could be used to implement write access to the database. That enabled writing all SAP R/3 application completely in ABAP — without the help of other programming languages.

Contents

Foreword .................................... 11

Introduction ................................ 13

1 Technical Overview and Getting Started in the System ............ 19

1.1 Overview of SAP Software and Architecture .......................19

1.2 Notes for Setting Up Access to SAP Software .......... 23

1.2.1 Regular System ....... 24

1.2.2 Test System on Linux .................................... 25

1.2.3 Test System on Windows .............................. 26

1.3 Programmer’s Checklist for Getting Started ............. 28

1.4 Logon, Getting Started, and System Setup .............. 31

2 Working with the Development Environment: The Object Navigator ... 51

2.1 Getting Started with the Object Navigator .............. 54

2.2 Development Classes and Packages ........................ 63

2.3 Namespaces ............. 66

2.4 First Program: “Hello World” — REPORT, INCLUDE, and Application Menu ...... 72

2.5 Online Help, help.sap.com, service.sap.com, and SAP Notes ........................ 97

3 Procedural Language Elements ............................... 107

3.1 Basic Commands and Fields — WRITE, PARAMETERS, MOVE, SY Fields ...................................... 110

3.2 Data and Data Types — DATA, PARAMETERS, CONSTANTS, FIELD SYMBOLS,

TYPE, CREATE, Text Elements ........... 116

3.3 Structures and Internal Tables — TABLE, MOVECORRESPONDING, INSERT,

APPEND, READ, MODIFY, DELETE, LOOP .. 139

3.4 Subprograms and Functions — FORM, FUNCTION, EXCEPTIONS .......................................................... 151

3.5 Branches and Logical Expressions — IF, CASE .......... 169

3.6 Loops — WHILE, DO ......... 183

4 Defining and Managing Database Tables ............... 191

4.1 Field Properties — DATA ELEMENT, DOMAIN ....... 192

4.2 Defining and Processing Database Tables — SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ......................... 206

5 Screen Input and Output .. 225

5.1 Simple Input and Output Interfaces, — SELECTION SCREEN, SELECT OPTIONA CALL

SELECTION SCREEN, SAP List Viewer ... 227

5.2 Complex Input and Output Interfaces — Dynpros ... 258

6 Object-Oriented Language Elements ..................... 319

6.1 Classes and Objects — CLASS, CREATE OBJECT, METHOD .................321

6.2 Inheritance and Polymorphism — INHERITING FROM, REDEFINITION ....... 351

6.3 EVENTS ..................... 370

7 Practice Scenario — Automated Accounting for Corporate Subsidiaries ....393

7.1 Defining the Requirements and a List of Functions for the Application ............ 394

7.1.1 List of Functions ..... 395

7.1.2 Selection List .......... 397

7.2 Software Architecture ........ 399

7.3 Software Design ........ 401

7.3.1 Rough Design ......... 402

7.3.2 Detailed Design ...... 406

7.4 Implementation ......... 416

7.4.1 DDIC Objects ......... 416

7.4.2 Programs ........ 422

7.4.3 Function Groups ..... 424

Appendix........................... 449

A Programming Guidelines and Tools ................................... 451

A.1 Programming Guidelines ... 451

A.2 Program Check Tools ........ 461

B Glossary .............................. 463

C The Authors ........................ 467

Index .... 469


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