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SAP BASIS Complete Guide (PDF) Based on SAP R/3 4.6

Updated Jul 11, 2018

A Complete Guide for SAP BASIS Consultants

Consider the following example [EMAIL or RAILWAY] For Email - It requires a PC and an Application installed in it

  1. Client requests
  2. The request is processed by an interface
  3. The request reaches server
  4. The server process the request
  5. Response back to the user either {Ticket/ Email}

This environment is called as a Client/ Server Architecture.

R/2 Client-Server

  1. Client provides an interface to communicate with the server. Eg: IE, GUI
  2. Client uses DB Client software to communicate with server
  3. Each request is processed by communicating with server only I.e. there is no intermediate layer in R/2
  4. Servers are heavily loaded/ traffic, long queues there by reducing the performance of the servers.
  5. There is no queuing mechanism and only server queues are maintained.
  6. Server needs to process the request (Understanding the user language). Interpretation takes time.

These are the disadvantages of R/2 Systems.

Client Server Environment:

Client requests and server responds. The major disadvantage of Client Server architecture is

  1. DB Client is installed on the client
  2. Processing takes place at client side
  3. No intermediate buffers for the frequently accessed content
  4. There is no queue mechanism to handle the requests there by servers are heavily loaded.
  5. The server side processing consumes resources to process (Interpret the user requests)

The need of middle layer/ tier rose to come out of the steps. The result is the Application layer/ Server

Application server is deployed and it provides the following functionality

  1. DB Client is installed to free up the clients (i.e. there will be only one DB Client for Application server earlier each client needs DB Client software)
  2. There is a queue mechanism to handle the request there by reducing the load on the client and server.
  3. User requests are served based on the FIFO using dispatcher.
  4. Work process task handlers are used to interpret and process the request.
  5. Intermediate buffers are available for the frequently accessed content to reduce the load on the Database server.
  6. The server side processing is only takes place for new requests there by server resources are optimally used.

Need for the Middle Layer: R/3 Architecture

The advantages of deploying Application Layer:

It is the Intermediate layer in between the Client and the Server. It is installed with a database client to communicate with the database server i.e. all the clients are freed with DB Clients.

Application server/ layer handle the request and process them based on FIFO (First in and First out). It has its own queue mechanism to process the user request. It also contains the task interpreters to interpret the user request and route it to the server.

It is intelligent to store the frequently accessed data thereby reducing the load on the server.

R/3 Architecture:

SAP uses the industry specific 3-Layer Architecture and named it as R/3 Architecture. It consists of three 3 Layers

  1. Presentation Server/ Layer/ Tier
  2. Application Server
  3. Database Layer

1. Presentation Server:

It is a client for all the SAP Solutions. It is also referred as SAP GUI. There are three 3 types of SAP GUI

  1. SAP GUI for windows (On Windows OS)
  2. SAP GUI for JAVA (On all OS where JAVA is supported)
  3. SAPGUI for HTML (for web based)

SAP provides various versions of GUI (4.6c, 620, 640, 700, 710 and 720)

2. Application Server:

It is used to handle the user request and process them to the database. It has dispatcher to process and monitor the user request, work process to process and interpret the requests, Buffer areas to store the frequently accessed data. It absorbs the load both from Client and the server.

3. Database server/ layer/ tier:

It is the area where the complete data resides. It has its own queue, process, buffers, and request handling mechanism. Most of the databases are on Oracle. SAPis pushing MAXDB (without any license key), Microsoft SQL Server & IBM DB2 with discounted prizes.

SAP is focusing SMB (Small Mid-sized Business) and promoting SAP for nearly 1 million/ Rs. 10 Lakhs/ per customer.

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